Volume 8 - Issue 3

S.No Title & Authors Name Page
Treating Symptoms of Morning Sickness: The First Dual Release Combination of Doxylamine-Pyridoxine
Gideon Koren*, Manon Vrandrick
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Modified release tablet preparations are sought when there is a need to provide clinical solutions which are not achieved optimally with the standard release products. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) affect most pregnancies. Symptomatic treatment aims to improve woman’s quality of life, and counteract dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, need for hospitalization and attendant risk of maternal and fetal complications. Until recently, the only agent approved by Canada, USA, South Korea. Israel and Singapore has been the delayed release combination of doxylamine and pyridoxine (Diclectin®/ Diclegis®).
All other countries worldwide do not presently have a pregnancy- approved anti emetic drug.
Due to its delayed release properties, Diclectin®/ Diclegis® begins to exert its antiemetic effect 6-8 hours after ingestion, and hence symptom relief may be delayed and necessitate the use of an immediate release medication. In November 2016 the FDA approved Bonjesta®, a novel, dual- release combination of doxylamine and pyridoxine, whereby a rapid release phase is followed by a delayed release phase, thus overcoming the time delay in action of the delayed release combination of doxylamine and pyridoxine.

In this article we review the unique properties of this new drug in the context of other medications where modified- release forms have been effective.

Design, Development and Evaluation of Herbal Transdermal Patches for Anti-Inflammatory Activity
Manjunath Setty M, Surendra Swarnkar, Neha Laxane, Sumit Laxane*
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In this study, various transdermal matrix patches containing Commiphora mukul of variable combination of ethyl cellulose/polyethylene glycol with enhancer (menthol: limonene) were prepared. The prepared patches were studied with respect to physicochemical characters, drug-excipient interaction, dissolution, skin permeation, stability and in vivo anti-inflammatory studies. The combination of ethyl cellulose and polyethylene glycol produces smooth flexible films. Dissolution and in vitro skin permeation studies revealed that the cumulative amount of drug permeated was decreased as the polyethylene content of the film increased. The film containing enhancer shows greater release as compared to film containing no enhancer. Based on in vitro skin permeation studies, CM4 [PEG/EC, 1:5, menthol (36 ug): limonene (36 ul)], was found to be better formulation as it released a maximum amount of drug. In stability studies, all the formulations were stable with respect to physical properties up to 45 days.

Pharmacy Times are Changing - How Prepared are You?
Rajinder Bains
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Perceptions of Final Year Pharmacy Students about their Preparedness to Practice Pharmacy and their Career Choices in Sudan
Rugaia Abdelmoneim, Ahmed Awaisu, Nadir Kheir*
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Background: Very little had been published about pharmacy education and practice in Sudan. Students are a strong source of information and their views should be considered.
Objectives: To explore opinions of final year pharmacy students on their curricula, preparedness to practice, and career choices.
Methods: This was a questionnaire-based study conducted in four different nationally accredited pharmacy schools in Sudan. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were applied.
Key findings: A response rate of 60% was achieved. Around half of the students felt unprepared to practice upon graduation, and over 50% thought that the curriculum lacked content related to the socio-behavioral aspects of pharmacy. Significant differences in responses were observed between students in public and students in private pharmacy schools; where the former preferred to train in hospital pharmacy and to be employed in the capital city, and the later preferred training in the community pharmacy practice and to be employed outside the capital (p ≤0.05).
Conclusion: Students experience difficulties and have poor expectations in terms of practice opportunities.

Formulation Development and Evaluation of Niosomal Gel of Combined Anti-Fungal Agents
Irene Thomas*, Beena P, Elessy Abraham
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Miconazole, glucocorticoid antagonist and Terbinafine, Sqalene epoxidase inhibitor are two of the commonly used drug for fungal diseases. In this present work, Miconazole and Terbinafine in combination was formulated as Niosomal gel and evaluated. Niosomes containing both the drugs were prepared by thin film evaporation technique with varying concentration of Nonionic surface active agent, Span 60 and cholesterol. FTIR and DSC study reports confirmed the absence of incompatibilities between the two drugs and the excipients. Five Niosomal formulations were prepared (N1- N5) and evaluated for surface morphology, particle size, PDI, Drug content, entrapment efficiency, Zeta potential, in vitro drug release and TEM analysis. The formulation (N3) containing equal concentration of Span 60 (100 mg) and Cholesterol (100 mg) showed highest yield, drug content and its entrapment efficiency was found to be 91.06%. All the Niosomal dispersions were incorporated into 2% Carbopol gel base to produce five Niosomal gel formulations NG1–NG5. Niosomal gels were evaluated for physical properties, pH, Viscosity, Spreadability, Extrudability, Drug content and in vitro drug release. NG3 was found to be the best formulation as it showed promising qualities of a gel with a maximum release of 84.523% (MCZ) and 85.812% (TBF) after 8 hrs and maximum anti-fungal activity than all the other Niosomal gel formulations. From the antifungal activity carried out, Zone of inhibition of two drugs in combination was found to be greater than the zone inhibition of individual pure drugs indicating the synergistic activity of the drugs. Skin irritation studies were conducted in Egg CAM and all the formulations showed non-irritant reports. Niosomal gel showed good stability at various temperatures. The kinetic data analysis showed that Niosomal gel fits to Higuchi model and follows zero order release by non-fickian super case Ⅱ diffusion. All these findings proved that Niosomal gel containing combined antifungal drugs is more effective than the marketed plain gel containing a single antifungal agent. Since the two drugs are having different mechanism of action they overcome the anti-fungal resistance shown by the organism and broaden the fungal spectrum. Moreover Niosomal gel improves the topical formulation with a high degree of skin permeation and prolongs maintenance of drug by increasing the retention time in the target area at a therapeutic level thereby decreasing the frequency of administration and increasing patient compliance.

Metformin and Urtica pilulifera- Comparable Effects and Similar Actions in Diabetes
Ahed J Alkhatib* and Ilham Ahed Alkhatib
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