Volume 6 - Issue 3

S.No Title & Authors Name Page
Mohd Mudassir Hussain, Vinesh Kumar, G Jeyabalan
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In the present study ethanolic and aqueous whole plant extract of Asystasia gangetica was investigated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. Analgesic activity was determined by two different methods (tail immersion & hot plate) & anti-inflammatory activity was determined by three different methods (carrageenan, formalin induced paw edema & cotton pellet granuloma) at dose 200 & 400mg/kg b.wt in experimental animals using diclofenac sodium, tramadol, Indomethacin as reference drugs. In all the animals models the results obtained were statistically significant (P<0.05) in comparison to control. The results obtained indicate that Asystasia gangetica has significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in those animal models.

Satish Pavuluri, Sridhar Siddiraju
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A simple, rapid, and precise UPLC method is developed for the quantitative determination of Cefpirome sulphate in pharmaceutical dosage form. The chromatographic separation of Cefpirome sulphate was achieved with an phenomnex c18 (2.5 X 100 mm, 3.0 µm) analytical column using 0.01M phosphate buffer and acetonitrile taken in 50:50%v/v and the response was detected at 265 nm by using PDA detector. The retention time was found to be 0.652 min. The described method shows excellent linearity over a range of 7.5-75 μg/mL. The correlation coefficient for Cefpirome sulphate was found to be 0.999. The relative standard deviation for six measurements in two sets of Cefpirome sulphate in injection is always less than 2%. The proposed method was found to be suitable and accurate for quantitative determination of Cefpirome sulphate in pharmaceutical preparations.
Molecular docking and PASS prediction for antinociceptive activity of some isolated compounds from Anisomeles indica (L.) Kuntze. and ADME/T property analysis of the compounds
Arkajyoti Paul, Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Mohuya Mojumdar, Joy Chakraborty, Hilton Banik, Risan Paul, Kishwar Ayesha Siddika, Joynab Al Gazzaly, Mohammed Sohel Chowdhury, Md. Mominur Rahman
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Anisomeles Indica (L.) Kuntze (Family - Lamiaceae) is commonly known as Gobura, is found in fallow lands throughout Bangladesh. The plant has used for carminative, astringent, tonic properties and uterine infection by the tribal in Khagrachari, Bangladesh. The aim of present study to investigate in silico molecular docking study used for four phytoconstituents Acteoside, betonyoside A, campneoside II, β-Sitosterol, Isoacteoside, Ovatodiolide and stigmasterol which are isolated from A. indica to identify whether these compounds interact with the responsible protein (Cyclooxygenase 1 enzyme) and PASS prediction is done by sever. Also ADME/T properties of the phytoconstituents were analyzed using Qikprop 3.2 module. A wide range of docking score found during molecular docking by Schrodinger. Acteoside, betonyoside A, campneoside II, β-Sitosterol, Isoacteoside, Ovatodiolide and stigmasterol showed the docking score -5.362 , -2.468 , -4.711 , -2.575 , -6.771 , -1.806 and -2.397 respectively . Among all the compounds Isoacteoside showed highest docking score. So, Isoacteoside is the best compounds for selective Cyclooxygenase 1 (COX 1) enzyme inhibition, as it possessed best value in Molecular docking. In the PASS prediction for their analgesic activity of the isolated phytoconstituents, we found wide range of activity and all the compounds showed greater Pa than Pi value. From the ADME/T profiles of all the tested compounds, it cleared that they might safe for human. Further in vivo investigation need to identify Cyclooxygenase (COX 1) enzyme inhibitory activity of isolated compounds from A. indica.
Krishna chinthala, M. Krishnamurthy, Dr. Pramod kumar
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The purpose of the investigation was to develop a simple, rapid and accurate RP-HPLC method to determine assay of Olmesartan, chlorthalidone And Cilnidipine in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Form. The chromatographic separation was performed on Kromosil 250 x 4.6 mm, 5µm. Eluents were monitored on PDA detector at a wavelength of 240 nm using a mixture Buffer: Acetonitrile: methanol (45:50:5v/v). The column temperature was maintained at 30°C. Validation parameters such as system suitability, linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), Stability of sample and standard stock solutions and robustness were studied as reported in the ICH guidelines. The retention time for Olmesartan, chlorthalidone And Cilnidipine was 3.357 min, 2.838 min and 3.722min respectively. Assay method further evaluated for Olmesartan, chlorthalidone And Cilnidipine analysis at low concentration of analyte and found limit of detection is 0.03, 0.05 and 0.02 ppm respectively and limit of Quantitation is 0.08, 0.16 and 0.07 ppm respectively. The percentage recovery of Olmesartan, chlorthalidone And Cilnidipine was 100.70%, 100.34% and 100.47% respectively. The %RSD for Olmesartan, chlorthalidone And Cilnidipine was found to be less than 1.08%, 0.9% and 1.3% respectively. Linearity of Olmesartan chlorthalidone, and Cilnidipine performed from 25% to 150% and the R2 is 0.999, intercept and slope found to be y = 43191x + 562.0, y = 65434x + 1255 and y = 76821x + 1619 respectively. The method was fast, accurate, precise and sensitive hence it can be employed for routine quality control of Olmesartan, chlorthalidone And Cilnidipine containing drug in quality control laboratories and pharmaceutical industries.
In vivo antidepressant and anxiolytic activities of ethanol extract of Trema orientalis leaves in mice
Md. Saiful Islam Arman, Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Sumya Afroze, Md. Forhad Alam, Md. Amdadul Haque, Tariqul Islam, Abdullah Al Ragib, Md. Tareq Rahman, Khondoker Md. Akter-Uz-Zaman, Md. Mominur Rahman
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The goal of our investigation was to determine whether the leaf extracts of Trema orientalis held any significant antidepressant and anxiolytic properties. Leaves of T. orientalis was extracted with pure ethanol (EETO). The forced swimming and tail suspension tests were used as predictive animal models of antidepressant activity, where the time of immobility was considered. Anxiolytic activity was evaluated by elevated plus mazes (EPM) and hole board model. For all in vivo tests, doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight were used. The extract also significantly decreases the duration of immobility in both animal models of antidepressant activity, forced swimming and tail suspension tests. In EPM test, the extract significantly increased time spent in open arms compared to control and in the hole board test, they also significantly increase in the number of head pokes in comparison to control. The overall results of the study indicated significant antidepressant and anxiolytic activities of ethanol extract of T. orientalis leaves. So this plant deserves further investigation to isolate the active constituents responsible for these activities and to establish the mechanism of action.
Formulation and Evaluation of Sildenafil Citrate Nanosuspension
M. Sreenivasulu Reddy, A. Jayaraju, M. Rafiyuddin and J. Sreeramulu
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In the present study, an attempt was made to prepare oral Nanosuspension of Sildenafil citrate is a vasoactive agent used to treat erectile dysfunction and reduce symptoms in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Nano suspension containing the drug were prepared by precipitation method using combinations of polymers (such as PVP K-25, Sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), TWEEN-80, poloxamer (188), and methanol). Estimation of Sildenafil citrate was carried out spectrophotometrically at 293nm. The Oral Nanosuspension were evaluated for various physical and biological parameters, drug content uniformity, particle size analysis, zeta potential, in-vitro drug release, short-term stability, drug- excipient interactions (FTIR). IR spectroscopic studies indicated that there are no drug-excipient interactions. The formulations F1 to F9 (containing PVP K-25, TWEEN-80, SLS, Poloxamer (188), and Methanol) used different ratio were found to be promising, of that formulation F3 containing PVP-K25 showed 99.85% release at the end of 20min & it follows zero order drug release kinetics. These formulations have displayed good Nanosuspension strength.
In vitro anthelmintic activity of Macaranga denticulata and in silico molecular docking analysis of its isolated compounds with tubulin
Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Arkajyoti Paul, Mohuya Mojumdar, Abul Hasanat, Md. Mohaiminul Islam, Afia Nabila, Md. Jakiul Islam, Md. Rabiul Hossain, Nishan Chakrabarty, Mohammad Nazmul Islam
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate anthelmintic activity on Tubifex tubifex worm of methanol extract of Macaranga denticulata (Muell. Arg.) leaves and in silico molecular docking used for six phytoconstituents namely 3-acetylaleuritolic acid, oleanolic acid, macarangin, scopoletin, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol isolated from M. denticulata, to identify whether these compounds interact with tubulin. M. denticulata leaves extract exhibited strong anthelmintic activity in vitro. Where it paralyzed (10.22±0.69min) and produced death (19.43±0.80 min) of the Tubifex tubifex at 10 mg/ml dose and the standard, Levamisole (3.3±0.38min and 6.5±0.76min) at 1 mg/ml. A wide range of docking score found during molecular docking by Schrodinger. 3-acetylaleuritolic acid, oleanolic acid, macarangin, scopoletin, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol showed the docking score -5.733, -3.951, -7.584, -6.115, -8.307-, and 8.021 respectively. Among all the compounds, β-sitosterol showed highest docking score. So, β-sitosterol is the best compounds as anthelmintic drug, as it possessed higher value in Molecular docking. Methanol extract of M. Denticulata leaves showed well anthelmintic activity. Further in vivo investigation need to identify that isolated compounds from M. denticulata have anthelmintic activity.
Formulation and evaluation of atorvastatin calcium sustained release tablets
Sandhya Mandadi, Vishwanadham Yerragunta, Umema Naaz Tarkash
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The objective of the study was to develop the sustained release matrix tablets of various concentrations of natural and synthetic hydrophilic polymers on in-vitro release rate from the prepared Atorvastatin calcium tablets. The obtained in-vitro dissolution data were fitted in different models and for F2 batch (higher concentration of xanthan gum) the highest correlation was found to korsesmeyer-peppas(R2>0.9022), which indicates the drug diffusion may takes place by erosion mechanism. Formulation F4 and F6 (higher concentration of guar gum and Carrageenan) the data were fitted in to zero order profile where R2 values were found to be 0.9244 and 0.9348 indicates the diffusion mechanism of drug release. Natural polymers were showing good release rate up to 17 h as compared to synthetic polymer in which the xanthan gum at higher concentration can exhibit drug release rate in predictable manner.
Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial property of different extracts of litsea salicifolia (roxb.ex nees) leaf.
Md. Afaz Uddin, D. M. Jakaria, Aumit Roy, Md. Ariful Islam, Md. Emdadullah,Md. Sameul Ahmed , F. M. Shah NomanUl Bari, Md. Nuruzzaman Neon
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A lot of research works are going on worldwide to find out natural antioxidants of plants origins as various oxidative stress related diseases result due to accumulation of free radicals in the body. The aims of this study were to evaluate in vitro antioxidant activities and antimicrobial property of Litseasalicifolia(ROXB.EX NEES) leaf.In total phenol content determination methanolic extract showed highest value of 102±1.414 mg/gm as Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE). Ethyl acetate extract showed highest total flavonoid content with 285.5±6.364 mg/gm as Quarcetin Equivalent (QE) and total anti-oxidant capacity with 264.5 ±10.607 mg/gm as Ascorbic Acid Equivalent (AAE). Methanolic extract showed highest tannin content with 253.5714 ±5.051mg/gm as Tannic Acid Equivalent (TAE) and good DPPH free radical scavenging activity with IC50 of 251.227 µg/mL. In antimicrobial assay extracts showed poor activity. Further studies are needed to isolate active compounds.
Phytochemical analysis and antiproliferative studies of various extracts of mollugo cerviana
Senthilkumar Manoharan and Manivannan Rangasamy
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In the present work, phytochemical analysis and antiproliferative activities of various extracts of Mollugo cerviana were evaluated by trypan blue dye exclusion and MTT assay models. The extracts produce potent cytotoxic effect against Human cancer cell lines viz. Human cervical cancer (HeLa), lung cancer (A549), breast cancer (MCF7) and liver cancer (HepG2) cell lines. Hexane and water extracts showed moderate activity whereas ethanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts showed potent activity against the tested cell lines. At the same time all the tested extracts showed 3-4 fold high IC50 values for the normal human dermal fibroblast cell line. The results revealed that the selective cytotoxicity of the plant extracts towards the cancer cells. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of these extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, polyphenolics and saponins. Antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity of the extracts may be due to the rich amount of these phytochemicals. Hence, the plant could be considered as a very good anticancer drug with renowned therapeutic potential.
Self Micron Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SMEEDS) as a potential drug delivery system - Novel applications and future prespectives - A review
Gritta Sebastain, Rajasree P.H, Jessen George, Gowda D. V
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SMEDDS are defined as mixtures of oils, co-solvents and surfactants, which is isotropic in nature and which spontaneously emulsify to produce fine oil-in-water emulsions when introduced into aqueous phase under mild agitation. After oral delivery of BCS class-II drugs, over one-half of the drug compounds are diminished in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. BCS class-II drugs having less water solubility and dissolution there by low bioavailability and this is a major issue face by the pharmaceutical industries. For the treatment of chronic diseases, delivery of poorly soluble drugs by SMEDDS as a vehicle via oral route which may enhances the bioavailability. Researchers are focusing on novel formulations of SMEEDS for various diseases having promising in-vitro and in-vivo results. Thus, this current review provides a brief updated collection of information about SMEDDS, its novel applications and future prospective.
Ftir analysis and reverse phase high performance chromatographic determination of phenolic acids of hypnea musciformis (wulfen) j.v.lamouroux.
Sumayya S S, Bosco Lawarence, Dinesh Babu KV, Murugan K
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Sea weeds have been one of the promising resources of biologically active metabolites and their extraction has significantly expanded in the last few decades. Hypnea, a proven candidate among the sea weeds for its rich mucopolysaccharides. In this study, Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J.V.Lamouroux. was screened for phenolic acid profile and further subjected to FTIR analysis of the different solvent extracts to know the functional groups.Reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method with gradient elution was adapted to fractionate and quantify free phenolic acids (gallic, vanillic, chlorogenic, sinapic, p-coumaric, ferulic, hydroxybenzoic, phloroglucinol, catechol and cinnamic acid). Chromatographic separation was performed with C18 column and detection was conducted at the wavelengths 254, 278 and 300 nm according to the absorption maxima of the analyzed compounds. Validation procedures were conducted and the method was proven to be precise, accurate and sensitive. The experimental results revealed high concentrations of sinapate, coumarate, phloroglucinol and ferulate, whereas,other phenolic acids were in low concentrations. Sinapate was established as the dominating phenolic acid. Diverse FT-IR peaks for each solvent extract has been determined and identified their specific functional groups. Remarkable correlation was found between the phenolics and FTIR peaks. 1743 cm-1 may be considered as optimal indicator of phenolics concentration. FTIR spectroscopy is recommended as rapid and reliable tools to predict the phytochemical composition of herbals. Further studies are warranted to isolate, purify the lead molecule and to evaluate its biological potentialities.
Review on multiparticulate system
Swapnil Waghmare, R.V. kshirsagar, Prachi patil, Sagar punde
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Novel drug delivery offers new ways to administer the medication Multiparticulate system is one of them. It helps to sustained & controlled the dose of drug. Implementation of Multiparticulate system can be done using oral, mucosal, transdermal & pulsatile type of delivery method. The Pelletization, granulation, microspheres, nanoparticles could be used for formulation of multiparticulates system. Multiparticulate drug delivery systems are the most extensively used dosage than unit dosage forms for their improved bioavailability and reduced chances of dose dumping. It serves many applications over traditional system.
Formulation, optimization and evaluation of Cyclobenzaprine hcl pellets for extended release
Sarada Anepu, Balasubrahmanyam A.V.S, Lohithasu Duppala, Anu Pravallika.J
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The aim of the present study is to formulate and evaluate the cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride extended release pellets by using commercially available sugar pellets by powder layer (using fluidized bed coater) process using different polymers like ethyl cellulose N-50, hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), and eudragit E-100. FTIR studies of the F6 formulation indicating no chemical interaction between cyclobenzaprine HCl and excipients. In order to get the optimized formulation, the various process parameters were adjusted. The various evaluations for formulations were carried out, that to based on the in-vitro drug release studies of F6 formulation shows better drug release profile than other formulations. The results conclude that trial F6 has met the objective of extended release, cost effective as once day of drug.
Antibiotic and Analgesic utilization review in an orthopedics in-patient department of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Hyderabad
Sushanta Kr. Das, Vyshnavi Kurra, Pravalika Guttu, Md. Amer Quadri, Nymisha Chowdary T, B. Valya, T. Rama Mohan Reddy
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Drug utilization review is ‘an authorized, structured, ongoing review of prescription, dispensing and medicine use’ facilitating rational drug use. Antibiotics and analgesics are common and frequently prescribed in orthopedic department. We aimed to evaluate the usage of antibiotics & analgesics in orthopedics department. Six month prospective case observational study was conducted in Orthopedics Department, Gandhi hospital, Secunderabad with approval from Institutional Ethical committee, CMR College of Pharmacy. Final outcome obtained by statistical analysis using ANOVA. In this study, male gender of 20-40 yrs was pre-dominant with common diagnosis; fractures and trauma. Common antibiotic prescribed were; Ceftriaxone, Cephalexin & Amikacin and analgesics; Paracetamol & Diclofenac. A total of 311 times antibiotic and 222 times Analgesic were prescribed in collected cases respectively. 3 antibiotics and 2 analgesics per case were predominant. Antibiotic & analgesic drug switch were also seen in study. Drug utilization review indicates 83% and 88% rationality of antibiotics and analgesics respectively. Slight irrationality was observed, those mainly due to insufficient lab data. Overall utilization of both antibiotic and analgesic was approximately in rational manner in Orthopedics department. Inclusion of regular lab test will make the prescription more appropriate, ultimately leading to better patient care.
Surface modified liposomes for targeted drug delivery
Anupama Puntambekar, Amrita Bajaj, Pranita Savardekar
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The aim of the present study was to design and develop a suitable intranasal spray formulation of surface modified liposomes to improve the concentration of anti-psychotic drug into the brain tissue for therapy of schizophrenia. Liposomal spray solution was optimized; particle size, zeta potential and polydispersity index were measured using Malvern Zetasizer. Morphology of liposomal spray droplets was examined using scanning electron microscopy. Drug diffusion studies were performed and drug diffused was estimated using UV spectroscopic analysis. Stable liposomal spray was formulated. The optimized liposomal spray showed uniform vesicles in the size range 155-170 nm and zeta potential of optimized formulation was found to be 29.77. Surface coating was done using chitosan solution in glacial acetic acid and evaluated. Intranasal surface modified liposomal spray exhibited higher deposition in brain tissues compared to conventional solution after intranasal and intramuscular administration indicating potential for nose to brain targeting. Thus nasal drug delivery offers a viable alternative to oral and injectable routes of administration.
Formulation and In Vitro Evaluation of solid dispersions of BCS Class II Drug Febuxostat by employing L-HPC
P.Tripura Sundari and Krutika Lad
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Febuxostat (FBX) is a non purine selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase/xanthine reductase. Because of low solubility the bioavailability of the drug is hampered, food also interferes with the absorption of drug and decreases the Cmax by 38-49%. In the category of poorly soluble drugs the change in surface area of the drug will show considerable changes in the solubility and dissolution of the drug. In the present study, the attempts were made to improve the bioavailability of FBX by solid dispersions technique by employing L-HPC as carrier molecules. Different ratios on weight basis were prepared viz 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:1. These preparations were characterized in liquid state by phase solubility studies and in solid state by Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Powdered X ray diffraction studies (PXRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The aqueous solubility of FBX is favored by the presence of carrier polymer. Solid state characterization indicated that FBX was present as fine amorphous form in the carrier polymeric molecules. In contrast to the solution rate of pure FBX the dissolution of drug in carrier considerably improved the dissolution rate, this can be attributed to the increased wettability and dispersibility as well as decreased crystallinity and increased amorphous fraction of drug.
Nutritional composition and pharmacological actions of spirulina
Bibekananda Meher, Anupama Roy, Navaneet Verma, Arun Kumar Mishra
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The popular edible algae, Spirulina are use as food worldwide. It is riched with large number of nutrients. C-phycocyanin, a molecule which contains phycocyanobilin, an homolog of biliverdin, is one of the major proteins present in Spirulina, It is also a good source of essential fatty acids like gamma-linolenic, linoleic and oleic acids. Sea algae is riched with exceptionally high content of vitamin B12 and tocopherol. Tocopherol is responsible for antioxidant action. It also contenins high concentration of minerals like Iron. It also posses different therapeutic potentials like: Anti-diabetic, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-anemic, anti-viral, and blood improvement, hepatoprotective, heavy metal detoxification from body. It can be cultivated in both normal and saline sea water. In present scenario to meet the demand of the increasing population it can be utilize as a good source of food supplement.
Interactive educational module: an intervention among nurses on knowledge, attitude and practice towards pharmacovigilance and adr reporting at a tertiary care hospital
Sunita Kumari, Senthilkumar¬ Palaniappan, Poonam Rishishwar
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Nurse’s knowledge and expertise is important to the application of drug safety profile. Nurses are more likely to report & detect adverse drug reactions than other healthcare professionals as they are the first point of contact to patients and doctors. The main objective of the study is to find out the effect of educational intervention among the nurses towards the knowledge, attitude & participation in reporting adverse drug reactions at tertiary care hospital in New Delhi. This study was conducted using validated Knowledge Attitude Practice (KAP) questionnaire. A total of 230 nurses responded, from the hospital. In Pre-KAP survey it was observed that hospital nurses lacked awareness about pharmacovigilance and needs to update their knowledge and practice. After intervention, a significant improvement in the knowledge, attitude and practice towards pharmacovigilance was observed among hospital nurses.
Synthesis and biological investigation of some novel sulfonamide derivatives containing benzimidazole moiety
Shipra Bhati and Pratibha Bidawat
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A new class of potentially biological active sulfonamide derivatives containing Benzimidazole moiety has been synthesized. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods and elemental analysis. Further, the synthesized compounds were evaluated for antibacterial and antioxidant activity. Their antibacterial activity was assigned using the conventional cup plate method and antioxidant activity was assessed using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. The synthesized compounds exhibited significant antibacterial and antioxidant activities compared to standard compounds.
Anthocyanin diversity in osbeckia l. Species from munnar hills
Bosco Lawarence and K Murugan
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Melastomataceae family is known for colours. The members possess diverse polyphenolic compounds. The major constituents of this family belong to terpenoids, simple phenolics, quinones, lignans, glycosides, tannins or hydrolyzable tannin oligomers of molecular weights up to 4600 Da, and flavonoids and anthocyanins. Anthocyanin show many biological potentialities including food colourant. Therefore, the present study aims to unravel diversity of Osbeckia, viz. species along Munnar hills and also to analyze their anthocyanin content. Six species and three varieties of O. aspera were collected i.e., O. gracilis, O. wynadensis, O. leschenaultiana O. aspera var. aspera, O. aspera var. travancorica, Osbseckia aspera (L.) var. wightiana, Osbeckia reticulata, Osbeckia virgata. A taxonomic key was prepared for the identification of these species and the germ plasm was maintained in the garden as part of conservation. Anthocyanin content showed remarkable variations both in leaves and flowers among the species. Highest level was noticed with Osbseckia aspera (L.) var. wightiana and Osbeckia reticulata. Habitat of the plant also influences the production of anthocyanins, red or blue coloured pigments. The abiotic stress induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis has evaluated only on a small number of species. In order to meet the demand for this natural product, it’s essential to evaluate anthocyanin biosynthesis in terms of their habitat. Thus, further studies are planned in terms of in vitro culture, elucidation of anthocyanin and its fractionation from Osbseckia aspera (L.) var. wightiana and Osbeckia reticulata.
Toxocological studies of an ayurvedic medicine “Slesma Sailendra Ras(SLS)” after chronic administration to male Sprague-dawley rats
Chinmoy Kumar Sen, Mariyam Akter, Palash Karmakar, Latifa Bulbul, M.S.K. Choudhuri
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Slesma Sailendra Ras (SLS) an Ayurvedic preparation used as a traditional medicine in the treatment of cold, flu and fever in the rural population of Indian subcontinent. After 54 days chronic administration of the SLS preparation to the male rats at a dose of 400 mg/kg, the following toxicological changes were noted. In the male rats there were decrease in Total Protein, Albumin and Globulin content in the plasma. Statistically very highly significant decrease plasma Total Protein content was noted. There was a negligible increase Triglyceride level and VLDL content in the plasma whereas statistically very highly significant decrease in Total Cholesterol, HDL and LDL content. After chronic administration of SLS to the male rats’ decrease of plasma Bilirubin and Creatinine level were noted in comparison to their control group. On the contrary, a very highly significant decrease in urea & Urea/Creatinine level in plasma were noted. SLS caused decrease in plasma uric acid which was not statistically significant.
Anti-inflammatory activity of Cuscuta Campestris hydro alcoholic extract on anti-inflammatory animal model
Asad Ullah Faiz Ghalib, Muhammad Nadeem, Syed Muzaffar Ali, Prof. Dr. Bakir Shyum Naqvi
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Cuscuta campestris Yunck having common names like Golden Dodder, field Dodder and Bay Parri which is widely distributed in America, Africa, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, South and East America. Cuscuta campestris grows on other plant as a host having antibacterial, parasitic properties and anti-inflammatory due to presence of certain chemicals. The main purpose of research work was to find out the anti-inflammatory activity of plant extract. For evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Cuscuta campestris, adult Wistar rats of both sexes weighing between 150-200 g were used. Edema was induced in sub planter region of right hind paw of Wister rats by injecting 0.1 ml of 1% suspension of Carrageenan in normal saline. After establishing animal model, treatment was started by giving the plant extract 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg. Control was treated by normal saline. To compare the activity of extract, standard drug (Acetyl Salicylic Acid) was used. The results were documented on 0, 1, 2 and 3 hours after treatment and percentage inhibition was recorded. From the results, it was concluded that; the hydro alcoholic extract (200mg/kg) of plant Cuscuta campestris produced better inhibition of paw edema as compared to standard anti-inflammatory drug available.
Preclinical lipid profile studies of an ayurvedic preparation \"saraguna balijarita makaradhvaja\" used as antipyretic
Md. Ashraful Alam, Shahnaz Jalil, Fariha Tasnim, Nahida Akhter, Mohsina Mukti, Md. Rakib Hasan, Satchit Neupane and MSK Choudhuri
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Saraguna Balijarita Makaradhvaja (SBM) is an Ayurvedic preparation used in traditional medicine as an antipyretic in the rural population. We were eager to know the effect of chronic administration of SBM on the lipid profile test. To find out the effect of chronic administration of SBM on the lipid profile, it was administered chronically to the male Sprague-Dawley rats at a dose of 400 mg/Kg. After 28 days of chronic administration of the SBM preparation, the following effects on the lipid profile were noted. There was a statistical significant increase in LDL and Non-HDL Cholesterol (p=0.01). A very highly significant (p=0.001) decrease was noticed in HDL-C level; thus leading to a statistically very highly significant (p=0.001) increase in Cardiac Risk Ratio (CRR) (TC/HDL-C), Castelli’s Risk Index-II (CRI-II) (HDL C/LDL-C) and Atherogenic Coefficient (AC) [(TC/HDLC)/ HDL-C)]. No significant change was found in case of TG, TC, VLDL and Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) (log (TG/HDL-C)).
Antibiotic susceptibility testing: a review on current practices
Uddhav S Bagul and Sivagurunathan M. Sivakumar
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An increasing Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has resulted in morbidity and mortality from treatment failures and increased health care costs. Appropriate antimicrobial drug use has unquestionable benefit, but physicians and the public frequently use these agents inappropriately hence, it became necessary to perform the antimicrobial susceptibility test as a routine. The aim of antimicrobial susceptibility testing is to determine the lowest concentration of existing or even new antimicrobial agents which inhibits the visible growth of the bacterium being investigated, under certain test conditions. The Disk diffusion, well diffusion, stokes and gradient diffusion methods are manual methods that provide flexibility and possible cost savings. The most commonly used testing methods include broth microdilution method using commercially available 96-well micro dilution panel. Broth dilution, tube dilution and E test provide quantitative results (e.g. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration) whereas other methods provide qualitative results which are categorized as susceptible, intermediate or resistant. Although available testing methods provide accurate detection of common antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, emerging newer mechanisms of resistance certainly attracts researcher for the development of advanced, reproducible, automated and reliable antimicrobial testing methods.
Interns Experiential Training Perspectives with Pharmacist Prescribing Protocol Development
Elhaum Khobahy, Nkechiamaka Nwosu, Reza Abbasgholizadeh, Mousa Abkhezr, Valerie U. Oji
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Pharmacist intern impressions on prescribing roles and protocol development in the course of their advanced experiential training experiences are described. The objectives of this qualitative study were to: 1) Identify core protocol requirements, 2) Compare/Contrast protocols from U.S. states with extensive pharmacist prescribing protocol history and 3) Design a pharmacist prescribing protocol based on integrated or collaborative care theory. Feedback on prescribing protocol development and pharmacist prescribing roles was gathered from a focus group of pharmacist interns’ activities that included 1) review of the local State Pharmacy law requirements (TX); and 2) comparison of these requirements with six other states or territories (CA, MD, DC, KS, VA, WA) where services are provided by the experiential training site and/or that state has a long history of experience with collaborative drug therapy management; 3) review of local state and out-of-state sample protocols; and 4) key general discussion questions. Prescribing protocols were obtained via Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), known samples, and data on hand. A concise, comprehensive prescribing protocol was developed for application of collaborative chronic care. Core protocol requirements identified were State Pharmacy and Medical Board approval and guidelines; pharmacist and physician licensure; specified prescribing-related and medication-management activities to be delivered by the pharmacists; how medication-management decisions would be made, documented and evaluated. Differences across U.S. states included the issuance of Pharmacist DEA numbers, pharmacist educational requirements, treatment algorithms, state/local guidelines and protocols. Interns\' shared experiences led to a perceived underutilization of pharmacists in meeting existing patient health service access needs and addressing medication-related problems. They also identified potential implementation challenges such as time and staffing limitations, provider status recognition, third-party reimbursement, overcoming multidisciplinary stereotypes of pharmacists’ roles, unfamiliarity with pharmacist prescribing as compared to other providers, educational needs for reinforcement on patient diagnoses, laboratory value orders/interpretations, medical record and claims documentation, and interprofessional communication. A positive interest in prescribing roles and protocol development was identified in contributing to patient health service needs. Implementation can be facilitated with an understanding of core protocol requirements, state laws, treatment guidelines and algorithms, potential service implementation challenges, and educational strategies for clinicians, administrators and policy-makers. Educational preparedness should consider the incorporation of these experiences, especially across multidisciplinary settings, to improve collaborative care.