Plants are potent biochemical factories and have been components of phytomedicine. Plant based natural constituents can be derived from any part of the plant (leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, seeds, etc.) which contain active principles. It is well known that traditional herbal medicines existed before the application of the modern scientific methods to health care; and even today majority of the world population depends on herbal health care practices. Cyperus esculentus L. is distributed mainly in the Southern European region and in the Western part of Africa. Its sweet tubers are highly appreciated for their nutritive value with a high content of fiber, proteins, and sugars. They are rich in oleic acid, glucose, and vitamins C and E. It is often a utile plant largely utilized in traditional system of medicine and exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, analgesic, antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antioxidant and various other activities. Our present review subsumes on chemical and biological properties of Cyperus esculentus. This compiled data reflects the therapeutic properties of this potential herb.