Opinion - (2022) Volume 12, Issue 1
Received: 07-Feb-2022, Manuscript No. IJP-22-152; Editor assigned: 11-Feb-2022, Pre QC No. IJP-22-152 (PQ); Reviewed: 21-Feb-2022, QC No. IJP-22-152; Revised: 28-Feb-2022, Manuscript No. IJP-22-152 (R); Published: 07-Mar-2022, DOI: 10.37532/2249-1848-22.12.03
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is a form of cancer that develops in lymphatic system, which is the part of immune system. White blood cells called lymphocytes proliferate improperly in Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and can create growths (tumours) throughout the body.
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is a kind of lymphoma in general. This category has several subclasses. The most prevalent subtypes diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. Hodgkin's lymphoma is the other kind of lymphoma.
Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma have contributed to a better prognosis for those suffering from this illness.
• Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
• Cutaneous B-cell lymphoma
• Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
• Follicular lymphoma
Symptoms and signs
• Lymph nodes swollen in neck or groin
• Pain or swelling in the abdomen
• Chest discomfort, coughing, or difficulty breathing
• Persistent tiredness
• Sweating at night
• Unknown cause of weight loss
• Clusters of lymph nodes
In most cases, physicians have no idea what causes Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. It starts when body generates an abnormally large number of lymphocytes, which are a kind of white blood cell.
Lymphocytes normally follow a typical life cycle. When lymphocytes die, body produces new ones to replace them. Lymphocytes do not die with Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and body continues to produce new ones. This overabundance of lymph nodes, causing them to enlarge.
T and B lymphocytes
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is most commonly caused in B-cells and T-cells
• B cells: B cells are lymphocytes that fight illness by generating antibodies that neutralize foreign invaders. B cells are responsible for the majority of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cases. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, and Burkitt lymphoma are Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma subtypes that feature B cells.
• T cells: T cells are a kind of lymphocyte that directly kills foreign invaders. T-cell lymphoma is substantially less common than Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma are Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma subtypes that contain T cells.
Treatment options are influenced by whether Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is caused by B cells or T cells. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is characterized by the presence of malignant cells in the lymph nodes. However, the illness has the potential to spread to other sections of lymphatic system. The lymphatic vessels, tonsils, adenoids, spleen, thymus, and bone marrow are among them. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma can sometimes affect organs other than the lymphatic system.
The majority of persons diagnosed with Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma have no clear risk factors. Some of the risk factors for Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma include:
• Immune suppressing medications: Patients undergone organ transplant and use immune-suppressing medications, may be at a higher risk of developing Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
• Infection with certain viruses and bacteria: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma appears to be increased by some viral and bacterial illnesses. HIV and Epstein-Barr virus infection have been associated to this kind of cancer. Helicobacter pylori, which causes ulcers, is one of the bacteria related to Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
• Chemicals: Chemicals used to remove insects and weeds, for example, may raise chance of acquiring Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. More study is needed to determine whether pesticides are linked to the development of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
• Age: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma can strike at any age, although the risk grows with age. It's the most common in people of 60 and above.
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