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Phytochemical and Pharmacological Evaluation of Methanolic Extract of Euphorbia hirta L

Abid Newaz Shihab1*, Fatema Akhter1, Tajmira Zaman1, Nazia Hassan1, Rimel Barua1,Mohammad Moshiur Rahman2, Md. Abdul Motaleb Bhuiya1

Background: Euphorbia hirta is a plant mostly known as dudhiya in locally; belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae has been investigated for the presence of its secondary metabolites and evaluation of biological activities of the crude extractives with special emphasis to the antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic activities. The phytochemical constituents of the dried powdered plant parts were extracted using organic solvents (methanol). Methods: Primary phytochemical screening was accomplished by using established methods. Antibacterial activity tested on three gram-positive and three gram-negative bacteria by disk diffusion method. In vitro anti-inflammatory effect tested on the human RBC cell caused by the control group and comparing it with the positive and test group. The in vivo action was done using mice of both sexes. Hypoglycemic effect evaluated by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Results: In our study of the antibacterial assay, we have tried Euphorbia hirta preparations against some gram positive and gramnegative bacteria. The extract at two different concentrations 1000 µg/disc and 700 µg/disc showed significant as compared with standard Kanamycin 30 µg/disc showed zone of inhibitions against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (Nil), Bacillus subtilis (10.0 ± 1.00,7.0 ± 0.50), Bacillus cereus (Nil), Salmonella typhi (9.5 ± 0.50, 8.0 ± 0.29), Salmonella paratyphi (11.0 ± 0.50, 7.5 ± 0.50), Escherichia coli (12.5 ± 0.50, 8.5 ± 0.50) respectively. The percentage of membrane stabilization for methanolic extract of Euphorbia hirta is effective in inhibiting the heat-induced hemolysis of HRBC at different concentrations (1000, 500, 250, 125 μg/ml). Hence anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts was concentration dependent. In OGGT, the percentage of decrease of blood glucose level in glucose-induced mice after 2 hours with different treatment. MEEH at the highest dose of 800 mg/kg decreased blood glucose level (24.34%) than other treatments, accept standard Glibenclamide. Conclusion: The present research suggests that that Euphorbia hirta leaf extract has significant antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic activities. We can say that the obtained results support for the uses of this plant as traditional medicine. 

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