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Evaluation of antioxidants, membrane stabilizing, cytotoxic and anthelmintic activity with phytochemical screening of Chromolaena odorata: A medicinal shrub

Md. Tanvir Haider Tanna, Aninda Kumar Nath, Mohammad Nurul Amin, Md. Ibrahim, Manjurul Islam Chowdhury, Md. Emdadul Hasan Mukul, Md. Saif Uddin Rashed, Asma Kabir, Monsur Ahmed, Mohammad Salim Hossain

The present study was an attempt to evaluate the antioxidant, membrane stabilizing, anthelmintic and cytotoxic properties of crude methanolic extract of C. odorata and different fractions of the crude extract. The phytochemical screening revealed the potent presence of alkaloids, phytosterols, tannins, terpenes, fats and fixed oils. Determination of total phenolic contents and DPPH methods were evaluated for antioxidant activity. The total phenolic content (mg of GAE / gm) of Crude Methanol Extract (CME), Petroleum Ether Soluble Fraction (PESF), Ethyl Acetate Soluble Fraction (EASF) and Chloroform Soluble Fraction (CSF) were 71.08±0.38, 52.08±1.01, 86.33±0.38 and 54.25±0.90, respectively. In case of DPPH method, the IC50 values were 19.48±0.49 μg/ml, 22.44±0.63μg/ml, 99.05±0.81μg/ml, 166.96±0.51 μg/ml, 317.10±0.99 μg/ml for standard (BHT: tert-butyl-1-hydroxytoluene) and the four extracts, respectively. Inhibition of haemolysis by standard acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) (70.82% and 75.91%), CME (20.65% and 53.53%), PESF (35.59% and 36.28%), EASF (34.74% and 30.18%), and CSF (30.01% and 32.26%) for hypotonic and heated solution respectively, were evaluated. For the anthelmintic test, paralysis and death time for standard (albendazole) 10mg/ml and crude extracts (10, 20, 30, 40, 50) mg/ml are 56.20±0.20 and 77.4±0.24, 30.4±0.75 and 60.8±1.03, 24.6±0.32 and 50.2±0.37, 20.6±0.40 and 40.8±0.51, 16.4±0.68 and 32.4±1.29, 10.2±0.40 and 10.2±0.40 minutes respectively. Moreover, the LC50 values were 0.839μg/ml, 10.245μg/ml, 8.98μg/m, 8.28μg/ml and 9.298μg/ml for standard group (vincristin sulphate), CME, PESF, EASF and CSF respectively in brine shrimp lethality bioassay. From the study it was revealed that all the extracts were abundant of various phytochemicals and showed various biological activities.

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