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Abstract

Evaluation of Anti-Diarrhoeal and Anti-Microbial Activity of Psidium Guajava Leaves Extract

Aashutosh Ghimire, Ayusha Badal, Dhiraj Layo Magar, Parbati Bogati, Sanju Thapa, Upana Ghimire

Background: Psidium guajava is found in Nepal and is commonly known as Aamba. Aamba is evergreen tree with green to yellow fruit and with white flower. Although evergreen it only produces fruit in winter. The leaves of Psidium guajava is popularly used as an anti-diarrhoeal agent in Nepali communities. There is limited research on anti-diarrhoeal, phytochemical screening and anti-microbial activity of Psidium guajava found in Nepal. Methods: The extracts were extracted using maceration process for 4 days. The extracted solutions (ethanolic, methanolic and water) were used to determine phytochemicals. For anti-microbial activity, five micro-organisms were used like S. aureus, Klebsiella, P. aeruginosa, S. typhi and E. coli. All extract and Standard drug (Norfloxacin and Amoxicillin) used for anti-microbial activity. For antidiarrhoeal activity, 30 swiss albino mice were deprived of food for 12 hours prior to the induction of diarrhoea from castor oil. The ethanolic extract were given to mice in 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 750 mg/kg dose and the standard drug (loperamide) in 2 mg/kg. Mice were observed for frequency and weighed the stool. Results: The qualitative phytochemical screenings were performed to assess the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponin, phenol, phytosterol and diterpene. The anti-microbial activity showed at 45% w/v concentration against S. aureus, Klebsiella, P. aeruginosa and S. typhi except for E. coli. The anti-diarrhoeal activity was 85.71%, 88.14% and 90.43% inhibition of defecation and 89.43%, 93.40% and 95.88% inhibition of weight of stool output for ethanolic extract and for loperamide was 66.71% and 76.23% for % inhibition of defecation and % inhibition of weight of stool output. Conclusion: The result showed that the phytochemicals present in Psidium guajava contains flavonoids, tannins, saponin, phenol, phytosterol and diterpene. The anti-microbial activity of P. guajava is effective against S. aureus, Klebsiella, P. aeruginosa and S. typhi except for E. coli. The anti-diarrhoeal activity of ethanolic extract of P. guajava is positive at 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 750 mg/kg dose on swiss albino mice


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