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Antioxidant, Analgesic, Antimicrobial, and Anthelmintic Activity of the Dried Seeds of Bixa orellana (L)

Utpal Kumar Karmakar1*, Sharmin Sultana1, Sonya Nishi1, Nripendra Nath Biswas1, Lokman Hossain2, Sharmin Sheikh3

The present study was performed to evaluate phytochemical groups, antioxidant, antibacterial, analgesic and anthelmintic activity of ethanol extract of seeds of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae). Preliminary phytochemical screening of ethanol extract exhibited the presence of reducing sugar, carbohydrate, saponin, terpenoids, tannins, alkaloids, acidic compound, proteins, steroids, and flavonoids. In the TLCbased qualitative antioxidant assay using DPPH, B. orellana extract showed the free radical scavenging properties that was indicated by the presence of yellow spot on a purple background on the TLC plate. In the quantitative free radical scavenging assay by DPPH, IC50 value was approximately 47 µg/mL, where IC50 value of the ascorbic acid was approximately 16 µg/mL. B. orellana extract displayed hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (SC50 = 157 mg/L) which was comparable to that of standard ascorbic acid (SC50 = 81 mg/L). The Total Phenolic Content (TPC) and Total Tannin Content (TTC) was found to be ~ 52 and ~ 25 mg GAE/gm of dried extract respectively using Gallic acid calibration curve. Total Flavonoid Content (TFC) was ~ 41 mg QE/gm of dried extract using Quercetin calibration curve. The extract showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S. dysenteriae, P. aeruginosa, S. typhi, and E. coli at the doses of 250 and 500 µg/disc in comparison with standard drug Fucloxacillin (30 µg/disc) and Ciprofloxacin (30 µg/disc). The extract showed significant (p<0.01) acute peripheral analgesic activity at the doses of 250 (40.34% writhing inhibition) and 500 mg/kg body weight (67.05% writhing inhibition) determined by acetic acid induced writhing method in mice as compared to Diclofenac sodium (79.55%). In anthelmintic activity test, time taken for paralysis and death at the concentration of 25 and 50 mg/mL was approximately 33 minutes and 39 minutes and 23 minutes & 30 minutes respectively whereas standard showed approximately 7 and 16 minutes at the dose of 15 mg/mL respectively against the parasite. The phytochemical groups present in this plant may be responsible for the aforementioned pharmacological effects. 

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