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Abstract

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF RITCHIEA LONGIPEDICELLATA FAM. CAPPARIDACEAE

C.F. Anowi, M. N. Ikegbunam, C.O. Ezugwu, G. Oche

Ritchiea longipedicellata had been reported to exhibit antimicrobial properties. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the antimicrobial activities of Ritchiea longipedicellata; family caparidaceae leaves against microorganisms and to serve as criteria to recommend the Ethnopharmacological uses of the plant. The plant leaves were dried, powdered and extracted by cold maceration with Ethylacetate for 24h. Phytochemical screening was done for alkaloids, saponin, essential oil, phenolic group, steroidal nucleus, simple sugar, starch, cyanogenic glycoside, proteins and flavonoid using standard procedures. Antimicrobial screenings were done using agar diffusion technique. Antibacterial activity test was conducted by screening against seven pathogens comprising both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria obtained from pharmaceutical Microbiology laboratory stock. The extract was screened against 24h broth culture of bacteria seeded in the nutrient agar at concentrations 200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25 mg/ml in DMSO and incubated at 37??, for 24 h and measuring the inhibition zone diameter - IZD. The same was done for antifungal however; fungi were seeded into a sabouraud dextrose agar and incubated for 72 h at 25oC. Aspergillus niger and Candida albican were used. The positive control was ampicillin 20μg/ml and clotrimazole cream 1mg/ml for bacteria and fungi respectively. DMSO was used as negative control. The results of phytochemical screening showed moderate availability of alkaloid, simple sugar and abundance of flavonoid, steroidal nucleus, essential oil, phenolic group, cyanogenic glycoside; absence of starch and protein and doubtful quantity of saponin. The extract displayed various activities against bacteria inhibiting it at various concentrations ranging from 200 to 6.25 mg/mL. Ethylacetate extract inhibited all the bacteria in a most appreciable extent. The extract demonstrated activities against certain bacteria and fungi (to some extent) confirming the use of the plant in ethno pharmacology. Taking the least IZD of the standard (Ampicillin) as the breaking point, the extract passed the breaking point.


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