Mohammad Arief*, Harika Bheemavarapu, Kiran Nilugul, Gunalaksmi Ramachandran
The declination of glomerular filtration (e-GFR) rate in CKD patients, eventually leads to renal failure which is the leading source to develop cardiovascular diseases. It is estimated that about 40-50% of all deaths in the end-stage renal disease population are of cardiovascular origin. The association between renal deficiencies and cardiovascular disease were conformed in large scale studies like HOPE and HOT. Even, the US Renal Data System (2013) reveals that about 43% and 15% patients with renal complications are affected with heart failure and myocardial infarction respectively. In the current article we aimed to review the literature on the prevalence rate of various types of cardiovascular complications and non-cardiovascular complications such as hypertension, arterial vascular disease, atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure and diabetes among India community. The study also focuses on the role of novel and traditional risk factors of patients having the chronic kidney diseases. Framingham risk score supports the traditional risk factors whereas the novel risk factors include the level of homocycteine, C-reactive protein and lipoprotein.
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