Volume 9 - Issue 2

S.No Title & Authors Name Page
Emma Williams, Sarah C Willis and David G Allison*
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Peer education between undergraduate pharmacy students and high school pupils has the potential to be an effective teaching method for the delivery of health promotion interventions due to social and cognitive congruence that learners share with educators. The aim of this study was to: explore perceived impact on third year pharmacy students of being a peer educator; and to identify benefits of health promotion and change in knowledge of high school pupil learners. Interactive workshops covering public health topics relevant to 14-16 year olds were developed and co-designed with teachers, with workshop learning outcomes mapped to the appropriate curriculum. Pharmacy students were allocated to groups of four and provided with training prior to workshop delivery. Surveys of pupils and teachers evaluating the workshops were analysed using descriptive statistics; pharmacy students’ perceptions were captured in an assessed continuing professional development record and analysed thematically. Pupils and teachers rated the workshops very highly; pharmacy students benefitted by feeling more prepared for future health promotion roles.

Evaluation of Cetrizine Hydrochloride–Loaded Orally Disintegrating Tablets for Disintegration Time and Dissolution Studies
Pamu Poornima*, Tulja Rani, Pamu Sandhya
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This study demonstrates the effect of three different super disintegrants, sodium starch glycolate (SSG), Polyplasdone XL and croscarmellose sodium (CCS) alone as well as in combination of SSG and Polyplasdone XL at different ratio (25:75, 50:50 & 75:25) and also without disintegrants. Direct compression technique was used to prepare Cetrizine hydrochloride tablets. Tablets were prepared with 2, 3 and 4% level of disintegrant and compared with tablets without disintegrant. Tablets were compressed at the breaking force range of 60-80 N. Compressed tablets were evaluated for weight, thickness, breaking force, friability, disintegration and dissolution. Formulation made without disintegrant shows very slow dissolution rate when compared to formulation with disintegrant. Formulations made with different disintegrants alone and also in combination show 90% drug release at 15 min time point versus 30 min in case of formulation without disintegrant. Formulation with 3 and 4% disintegrant level, SSG and Polyplasdone XL combination in different ratios shows significantly higher percentage drug release in initial time point when compared to the formulation containing SSG alone as disintegrant. The dissolution profile of formulations made with combination of disintegrants in 3 and 4% level was found to be in the order of SSG:PPXL (25:75) > SSG:PPXL (50:50) > SSG:PPXL (75:25). From the results of this study it can be concluded that SSG and Polyplasdone XL used in combination could be an alternative approach to increase the dissolution of the tablets when compared to the formulation with SSG alone as disintegrant.

Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs and Opioid Poisoning: Evaluating the Impact of Prescriber Use Mandates on Prescription Opioid Poisoning Emergency Department Visits
Sarah Al-Manie
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Background: Mandatory use of prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) databases by prescribers has been recommended as a way to influence prescription opioid abuse. Methods: this study explored that recommendation by comparing emergency department (ED) visits related to prescription opioid poisoning among individuals ≥ 12 years old in a mandatory use state, Kentucky, with a non-mandatory use state, North Carolina. Data from the State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD) and the State Inpatient databases (SID) were used to identify prescription opioid poisoning ED visits among patients. Main findings: the analysis revealed that the odds of having a prescription opioid poisoning ED visit in the mandated use state of Kentucky were 11% to 35% (95% CI= 6.0% - 39.0%) lower than in North Carolina between 2012 to 2014. Conclusion: this study provides evidence that a prescriber use mandate is effective in reducing prescription opioid poisoning ED visits.