Volume 8 - Issue 2

S.No Title & Authors Name Page
Review of Pharmacy-Based Management of Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections (UTIS) In Community Pharmacy Settings
Julie M Akers*, Alex J Adams, Michael E Klepser
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common infections affecting adult women. One-half of all women will experience at least one UTI in their lifetime. Recurrence of UTIs is common, with a reported rate of 25% within 6 months of the first occurrence. UTIs are responsible for nearly 10.5 million medical visits annually in the United States (US), accounting for 0.9% of ambulatory visits. Estimates show emergency room visits for UTIs lead to $4 billion annually in unnecessary healthcare costs. Enhanced access to care at lower cost venues holds significant promise to improve patient care more efficiently.

Medication Non-Adherence among Pediatric Patients with Chronic Illness
Ranjani Varadarajan*, Song Hee Hong
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Introduction: The pediatric populations face unique challenges in adhering to medication therapy because of their care dependency and varying developmental capacities. This review aims to provide a critical appraisal of recently published studies (1980-2013) on medication non-adherence among children. Specifically, it intends to summarize factors associated with pediatric medication non-adherence and to describe strengths and limitations of the interventions frequently used for improving medication adherence among the pediatric population.

Methods: A review of the literature was conducted for studies published in English on pediatric adherence to medication and therapeutic regimen between 1980 and 2013. Studies were included, if: (1) study populations were children and adolescents under 18 years of age; (2) study patients had chronic illnesses such as diabetes, asthma, HIV and mental health disorders; and (3) study outcomes and interventions concerned medication non-adherence.

Results: The number of studies reviewed was 76. Risk factors associated with pediatric medication non-adherence included age, peer pressure, disease, type of medication, health providers, and socio-demographic factors. Intervention strategies were education, cognitive/behavioral therapies, technologies, and multi-front approaches. However, few interventions were customized for the pediatric population with varying developmental capacities.

Conclusion: Improving medication adherence among pediatric patients requires individually tailored and patient-centered approaches that reflect varying developmental capacities of children.

Drug Interaction
S Vedha Pal Jeyamani*, J Mohammad Azarudeen, B Divakar, J Selva Kumar, C S Kalaivana Kumar
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All pharmacists working in a clinical setting whether dispensing medicine or advice require a well-grounded knowledge of drug interactions to prevent harm to patients from medicine combination. The mechanisms by which most interactions develop are well documented and related tom the basic processes by which a drug acts and are acted upon in the body.

Implementation Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 and Rules, 1945 Among the Southern States of India
Kempaiah Suresh*, Balamuralidhara V
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Health is a Fundamental Right granted by the Constitution of India. The Government of India passed the “Drugs Act” in 1940 to regulate the import, manufacture, distribution and sale of drugs. The Drugs Control Administration aims at assuring the availability of drugs & Cosmetics of proven quality, efficacy and safety at prices as announced. Pharmacy is the health profession that links the health science with chemical science and it is charged with ensuring the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs. In this study to identify the areas of variation in Interpretation of Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 and Rules thereunder among southern states of India. These findings suggested that lot of banned fixed dose combinations are approved by the different states and difficult to track and trace the substandard drugs and different states adopting different procedure in issuing license for manufacture of drugs among states of India, and even there is a variation in Administrative Actions and implementation of the said Act also. It affects the public health. Hence it requires the harmonization of implementation of Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940 and Rules 1945 among the States of India.

The “Never” List: Promoting Patient Safety by Preventing Medication Error
Abusham Ahmed*
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Medication errors represent the largest category of adverse events affecting hospitalized patients. Some fatal medication errors occurred as a result of administration of an incorrect drug and/or improper dosing of a drug. After repeated incidences of such serious medication errors, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organization (JCAHO) has established essential patient safety goals requiring each health care organization to implement comprehensive medication reconciliation at admission, transfer, and discharge in a way that maintains patient safety at all times.
The purpose of this “Never” list is to present a gentle reminder to all healthcare providers to be more vigilant towards some serious medication errors.

Development and Validation of UV-Spectrophotometric Method for Estimation of Velpatasvir in Bulk Form by Absorbance Maxima Method
Somia Gul and Asra Hameed*
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Recent study was conducted to develop a simple UV spectrophotometric method to determine an HCV inhibitor, Velpatasvir in bulk form according to official requirement and validate as per ICH guidelines. λmax of Velpatasvir was found 303 nm. Linearity existedperceived in the concentration assortment 5-40 μg/ml (r2 =0.999) for the method. The method was validated pertaining to linearity, precision and accuracy studies, LOD and LOQ consistent with ICH guidelines. Recovery studies for absorption maxima method was found to be 100.35%, 100.0% and 100.08% respectively. The existent method was establish to be simple, linear, precise, accurate as well as sensitive and can be applied for routine quality control enquiry for the analysis of Velpatasvir in bulk form.

Chemoprofiling and Analgesic Effect of Methanol Leaves Extract and Fractions of Carica papaya
*Omotoso Abayomi E and Igbinaduwa Patrick
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The present study was carried out to identify the chemical compounds present in the partitioned extracts of C. papaya dried leaves using GC-MS technique and also to evaluate the analgesic activity of the methanol crude extract of the dried leaves obtained via hot method in mice using two laboratory models namely: hotplate latency assays and acetic acid induced writhing. The extract given orally (50-200 mg/Kg), increased the reaction time from 2.5 ± 0.6 to 5.3 ± 1.2 seconds in the hot plate model which showed a significant, dose dependent analgesic activity when compared with the control (p

Chemo-profiling of Secondary Metabolites from Endophytic Fungi of Jatropha tanjorensis
*Omotoso Abayomi E and Igbinaduwa Patrick
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Jatropha tanjorensis belongs to family Euphorbiaceae and like other medicinal herbs have been used in ethnomedicine for treatment of various ailments such as diabetes, hypertension, inflammation and anemia. This is believed to be due to the presence of bioactive compounds they contain. This study was carried out to isolate the endophytic fungi resident in the midribs and leaf blades of J. tanjorensis and consequently to identify the bioactive compounds produced by the fermentation of these fungi using Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry analysis. Leaves of J. tanjorensis were subculture into Sabouraud agar from which single colony forming units were isolated and identified microscopically and morphologically. The isolated fungal strains were subsequently fermented in rice media. The secondary metabolites were extracted using ethyl acetate and subsequently concentrated for GC-MS analysis.\\r\\nTwo microorganisms were isolated: Cryptococcus neoformans and Microsporum canis. Bioactive compounds identified were mainly fatty acids such as n-Hexadecanoic acid and Octadecanoic acid. Many of the compounds identified possess an antioxidant, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and pesticides, anti-microbial and anti-androgenic property which justifies the folklore use of the leaves in traditional system to cure various ailments. The results suggest that the medicinal properties of J. tanjorensis can be attributed to endophytes (endophytic fungi) present in the leaves.

Antibiotic Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations and Time–killing against Helicobacter pylori Clinical Isolates in Douala, Cameroon: Therapeutic Potential of Routinely Antibiotics
*Wangnamou itte, Eyoum Bille Bertrand, Tamesse Joseph Lebel, Francois-Xavier EtoaMarcel, Kouitcheu Mabeku Laure Brig
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The choice of regimens treatment against H. pylori infection in the present time should be based on knowledge of local resistance patterns and antibiotic use. In the present investigation, we tested the susceptibility of H. pylori isolated from dyspeptic patients residing in Douala- Cameroon, to routinely used drugs; amoxicillin, metronidazole, clarithromycin, erythromycin, doxycyclin and ciprofloxacin alone and in combination with two drugs each, using broth micro dilution assay and their bactericidal effectiveness in time-killing studies. Our findings showed that doxycycline, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin, when tested alone were the most active among the antibiotics used with MIC value of 0.125 μg/ml. All the 11 different combinations showed synergism, and no case of antagonism was observed. The best combinations with the highest minimum fold inhibition (128) were Amoxicillin-Doxycyclin, Metronidazole-Clarithromycin and Metronidazole-Doxycyclin. The bactericidal studies of doxycyclin, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin showed that ciprofloxacin at 8 MIC, produced a viability decrease of 3 log against clinical isolates tested.\r\nOur findings clearly support the efficacy of combination therapies against H. pylori and suggest that susceptibility testing alone may not be sufficient to provide evidence of the clinical potential of anti H. Pylori agents and that time-killing study may be a useful method for evaluating the efficiency of antibiotics.