Country-wise Listing - Zambia

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S.NO Title & Authors Name page
Effects of Vernonia Amygdalina Leaf Extract on Total Antioxidant Capacity and Malondialdehyde Levels in Acetaminophen-Induced Toxicity in Mice
Mweenda Sitanimezi, Ezeala Christian Chinyere, Prashar Lavina
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Background: Many plants have been shown to possess antioxidant properties. Aim: To determine the effects of V. amygdalina on Total antioxidant status and malondialdehyde levels in mice treated with acetaminophen overdose. Methodology: Mice were separated into 5 groups of 6 mice each. 300mg/kg of acetaminophen was administered to all groups except group 1. Then V. amygdalina extract was administered to groups 1 and 3 at 50mg/kg and group 4 at 100mg/kg, and group 5 received Vitamin C at 500mg/kg, all treatments were given orally. 8 hours later blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture, livers were excised, homogenised and used for biochemical analysis.  Results: Acetaminophen produced a significant reduction in TAOC and a marked increase in MDA levels of mice in groups 2, 3, 4 and 5. These effects were significantly attenuated by V. amygdalina administration, in a dose dependent manner. These effects were comparable with those of Vitamin C. Conclusion: Results suggests that Vernonia amygdalina possesses significant antioxidant effects.

Prevalence and Associated Host Factors of Candiduria and Bacteriuria among Diabetic Patients Assessment of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Isolated Bacterial Isolates
Tafadzwa Dzinamarira*
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Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens causing commonly acquired UTIs is increasing. Identifying risk factors for resistance and knowing the current pattern in prevalence in the local context are important steps in choosing an appropriate therapeutic agent. Coupled with a paucity of local context data on the occurrence of candiduria among diabetic patients in Zimbabwe, the study sought to avail more information on this subject. Methodology: A laboratory based cross-sectional study was used on a sample 245 diabetic patients attending out-patients’ diabetic clinic at a referral hospital in Harare, Zimbabwe. Results: The prevalence of bacteriuria was 22.9% with no statistical difference between males and females (p = 0.051). The prevalence of candiduria was 13.5% with statistical difference between males and females (p = 0.042). Gentamycin and Nicene were effective against most bacterial isolates obtained. There was a marked increase in the incidence of bacteriuria and candiduria in the unemployed (25,8% and 16,1% respectively) than in employed individuals (13,6% and 5,1% respectively). Conclusion: High resistance rates exhibited to some commonly used antimicrobials may mean the continued use of these antibiotics when considering therapy for bacteriuria seems to be under threat. Additional surveillance data that combines results of in-vitro susceptibility tests with epidemiologic and clinical patient characteristics is needed.