Anti-amoebic effects of crude root extracts of Senna didymobotrya against Entamoeba histolytica infecting caecum of mice were studied. Caecal amoebiasis was induced by injection of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites directly into the caecum. Mice were treated orally with dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol total, methanol successive, hexane, water extracts, metronidazole and normal saline for five consecutive days and examined on the sixth day. At a dose of 500mg/kg/day, extracts of dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol total, methanol successive, hexane, water had a curative rate of 50, 66.7,100, 66.7, and 83.3%, each, respectively. At a concentration of 1mg/kg/day, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol total, water, hexane extracts were effective in 33.3 each, 83.3 each and 66.7% of the cases respectively, while methanol successive extract at a dose of less than 500mg/kg/day did not cure any mice. Metronidazole at a concentration of 125mg/kg/day had a curative rate of 100%. Severity of caecal wall ulceration reduced in mice which received extracts and metronidazole compared to control animals.
The cytotoxicity and an in vitro antiamoebic effect of Senna didymobotrya (Irwin Fresen) were studied. 300g of crushed S. didymobotrya was isolated in several solvents namely Dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol, hexane and water extracts. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and IC50 of the extracts in comparison with metronidazole were then obtained on trophozoite of E. histolytica, HM-1: IMSS strain in LYI-S-2 medium. The MIC for S. didymobotrya dichloromethanolic, methanolic successive, hexanic and water extracts after 48 hours was 500mg/ml each while methanolic total had a MIC of 250mg/ml. MIC for metronidazole was 62.5mg/ml whereas ethyl acetate was inactive. The IC50 for S. didymobotrya dichloromethanolic, methanolic total, methanolic successive, hexanic and water extracts was 2.15, 3.63, 0.3, 0.46, 0.12 and 0.58 respectively. The IC50 for metronidazole was 0.03. Senna didymobotrya is effective on the trophozoites of E. histolytica species and the methanolic total extract exhibited the greatest antiamoebic activity, at the lowest MIC.
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