Country-wise Listing - India

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S.NO Title & Authors Name page
1
APPLICATIONS OF PROTEOMICS IN ANIMAL MODEL
Jagatheesh K, Pavankumar P, Elangovan N, Padmavathi P, Swathi D and Mary Tryphena
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Proteomics is a relatively new approach for understanding the pathology and pathogenesis of various diseases. It has also been used for characterizing the modifications in protein expression during the development of diseases. Proteomics is defined as a scientific approach used to elucidate all protein species within a cell or tissue, and many researchers are taking advantage of proteomic technology to elucidate protein changes between healthy and diseased states. Animal model plays an important role in the proteomics technology to find out biomarkers, for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of various diseases. There are several animal models used in proteomic studies they are Caenorhabditis elegans (worm), Drosophila melanogaster (fly), Mus musculus (mouse) and Canine. This review shows several applications of animal models in proteomics

1-14
2
TOXICOLOGY STUDIES OF ALCOHOL EXTRACT OF DERRIS BREVIPES VAR BREVIPES
Yuvaraj G, Sreedevi, JSK, Amruth, Raghu PS and Shankar S
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Derris brevipes var brevipes, a common medicinal plant, has multiple uses in traditional system of medicine and in particular it is used as a memory-enhancing agent for centuries. The plant and its extracts have been evaluated for a number of activities like anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, sedative and neuron-muscular.  The plant extract was evaluated for the antimutagenicity and mutagenicity studies in order to confirm the safety of its usage. Ethanol extracts of Derris brevipes var brevipes, showed no mutagenicity up to 5 mg/plate when tested with Salmonella typhimurium TA97a, TA98, TA100, TA102 and TA1535 strains with or without metabolic activation. On the other hand ethanol extract of Derris brevipes var brevipes, showed a significant protective effect against the mutagenicity induced by mutagen in S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strain with or without metabolic activation. The results of these studies indicate that Derris brevipes var brevipes, is non-mutagenic in the Ames test, exhibit protection against the mutagenicity induced by 4-nitroquinolene-1-oxide, sodium azide and 2-aminoflourene in TA98 and TA100 strain.
24-28
3
METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR ESTIMATION OF NEVIRAPINE FROM TABLETS BY RP-HPLC
Rohini P, Madhusudhanareddy I, Gupta Atyam, Lokeswara babu V and Sudharani G
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for the estimation of nevirapine in tablets. The quantification was carried out on the symmetry C18 column, with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer in the ratio of 65:35 v/v. The mobile phase pumped at a rate of 0.8 mL/min and the detection was carried out at 283 nm. The linearity was found to be in the range of 20-60 µg/mL. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation was found to be 0.027µg/mL and 0.09µg/mL, respectively. The percentage recovery values were found to be in the range of 99.83-100.73%. Statistical analysis proves that the method was found to be simple, precise, accurate and reproducible, and can be used for the routine quality control of nevirapine in formulations.
29-33
4
PHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILES OF BACOPA MONNIERI: A Review
Sudharani D, Krishna KL, Deval K, Safia AK and Priya
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In recent times, the use of herbal products has increased tremendously in the western world as well as in developed countries. One of the important medicinal plants, widely used therapeutically in the orient and becoming increasingly popular in the west is Bacopa monnieri, a well-known nootropic herb. The plant being traditional Ayurvedic medicine used for centuries as a memory enhancing, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, sedative and antiepileptic agent. The present review summarizes current knowledge of pharmacological actions, major bioactive(s), reported mechanisms of actions and the possibility of interactions of the herb with the conventional drugs. Simultaneously, research updates as well as avenues for further research are also mentioned concerning the plant.
15-23
5
PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF CONTROLLED RELEASE DILTIAZEM HCl TABLETS BY USING ETHYL CELLULOSE AND ETHYLENE-VINYL ACETATE POLYMERS AS RETARDANT
*Chowdary KPR, Satyanarayana KV, Siva Santhosh Kumar D and Deepthi Ganga Priya Y
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate controlled release tablets of Diltiazem by a wet granulation method using Ethyl cellulose and Ethylene vinyl acetate as a retardant and chloroform (solvent for the polymer) as granulating fluid. The polymers were used at 2, 5 and 10 % concentrations in the formulae. Diltiazem release from the matrix tablets was slow and spread over a period of 12 h depending on the type of the polymer and its concentration. Based on values of correlation coefficient the drug release was found to be by diffusion mechanism following zero order kinetics. From ‘n’ values, tablets prepared with Ethylene vinyl acetate and ethyl cellulose followed Fickian and non-fickian diffusion mechanisms respectively. Among all the formulations CRF4 exhibited better controlled release for 12 hours, when compared to marketed tablets.
34-39
6
EVALUATION OF CARALLUMA FIMBRITA FOR ANALGESIC, ANTI INFLAMMATORY AND ANXIOLYTIC ACTIVITIES
*Saivasanthi V, Gowthamigoud, Swathi K, Aakruthi, Sowmya rani, Gupta A and Rao AS
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the Analgesic, anti inflammatory & anxiolytic activities of the Caralluma fimbriata extract. In the evaluation of analgesic activity the model used was Eddy’s hot plate method in which the animals treated with Caralluma fimbriata and standard Pentazocin has significantly increased the latency period of jumping & paw licking when compared with control group animals. The anti – inflammatory activity was screened by Carageenan induced paw edema model in which the animals treated with testing drug and standard indomethacin has significantly reduced the inflammation when compared with carageenan induced inflammatory positive control  group animals. In the evaluation of anxiolytic activity the animals treated with the testing drug and standard diazepam has significantly raised the time spent in open arm and a number of entries when compared with control group animals in elevated plus maze model. Since all the animal models used in this study were well established models and used by many authors, so we can conclude that the extract of Caralluma fimbriata has the analgesic, anti inflammatory and anxiolytic activities.
40-45
7
HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MIMOSA PUDICA ROOTS AGAINST CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS
*Suneetha B, Pavan Kumar P, Prasad KVSRG, Vidyadhara S and Sambasiva Rao KRS
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In the present study, methanolic root extract of Mimosa pudica (M. pudica) (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) was used to screen the hepatoprotective activity. Biochemical parameters like serum glutamate Oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT) and serum bilirubin were measured. The activity of tissue antioxidant enzymes namely lipid peroxidation, catalase, reduced glutathione and histopathological evaluation of liver sections were also done. Carbon tetrachloride administration in rats elevated the levels of SGPT, SGOT, cholesterol and bilirubin. Administration of the methanolic root extract of the Mimosa pedicure at a dose (400mg/kg) significantly (P<0.01) prevented this increase. The activity of anti-oxidant enzymes like catalase and reduced gltathione was decreased and malondialdehyde content was increased in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated group. The enzyme levels of catalase and reduced GSH were significantly (P<0.01) increased and malondialdehyde content significantly ( p < 0.001 ) decreased in the group treated with M. pudica at a dose of 400mg/kg. Histopathological studies revealed that the concurrent administration of carbon tetrachloride with the M. pudica extract exhibited protection of the liver tissue. The study has confirmed the hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of M. pudica, which may be attributed to its antioxidant property.
46-53
8
HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF LEAVES OF PARKINSONIA ACULEATA LINN AGAINST PARACETAMOL INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS
*Shah VN and Deval K
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Free radicals are generated during the metabolism of synthetic chemical substances per drugs by liver can cause hepatotoxicity. Supplementation with exogenous antioxidants, including alkaloid compounds from plant sources, may useful for protecting liver against free radical induced hepatotoxicity. P. aculeata has been reported to have potent anti oxidant activity. With this background the present study has been undertaken to explore the in vivo hepatoprotective action of P. aculeata leaves.In the present work leaf extracts of P. aculeata (Fabaceae) was selected to determine its in vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective activity, where hrpatotoxicity was induced by CCl4 (20 mM) for in vitro study and by oral administration of Paracetamol (2 gm per kg) for in vivo study. Extract was administered orally at a daily dose of 200 mg per kg and 300 mg per kg, for 7 days (in vivo). In vitro hepatoprotective activity was assessed by checking the viability of the cells by using Trypan blue dye and by measuring release of cytosolic enzymes in the medium and In vivo hepatoprotective activity was assessed by measuring serum biochemical parameters and endogenous anti oxidant enzymes. The levels of cytosolic enzymes, serum enzymes and endogenous antioxidant enzymes, used as a marker of oxidative damage to hepatocytes, was reversed to the same level as in Normal group in does dependent manner. No obvious signs of toxicity were observed 300 mg per kg treatment dose.
59-66
9
FORMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF VERAPAMIL HYDROCHLORIDE MICROCAPSULES
*Vishnu P, Ravindrababu B, Sudheer B, Shireesh Kiran R and Naveen babu K
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Verapamil hydrochloride microcapsules prepared with sodium alginate, carbopol and magnesium start in different ratios of polymers with the drug by the iconic Gelation Technique and the prepared microcapsules were evaluated for size range, drug content, drug release profiles, and kinetics of drug release. All the microcapsules were discrete, free flowing, and reproducible with respect to size distribution and drug content. The maximum percentage of the microcapsules belonged to the size range of 500m. Drug release from the microcapsules (MC1 andMC2) was 94-97 % in first 6 hours, with the initial burst of nearly 50% within one hour. Drug release from microcapsules (MC3 and MC4) was 90-95% and sustained up to 8 h with initial burst of 50-54 % in first 6 h, resulted with increase in cross-linking time for 5-6 hours, Drug release from microcapsules (MC5 and MC6) sustained the drug release up-to 12 hours, with an initial burst release of 35-37 % within first one hour with increase in cross-linking time for 5-6 hours and addition of magnesium stearate (2-4 %w/w) and cumulative release of over 90-93% and indicated that the drug release from the microcapsules was found to be slow and spread over an extended drug release. Based on r2 values the drug release followed first order kinetics and diffusion mechanism. Drug release from the microcapsules depends on the composition of the coat, cross linking time and also influenced by magnesium stearate.
54-58
10
ASSESSMENT OF COMMUNITY PHARMACIST'S KNOWLEDGE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF CONSTIPATION IN ADULT
*Moorthi C, Rachel Paul and Thaha Hussain KP
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was aimed to evaluate the knowledge of community pharmacists in the management of constipation in adult. The study included 103 community pharmacists, who met the inclusion criteria. The study result revealed (a) Constipation was more prevalent in older adult with the age group of 50 - 60 years; (b) Deficiencies in obtaining basis information such as medication history, medical history, food and fluid intake, pregnancy and lactation, associated symptoms and previous treatment attempts; (c) Lack of knowledge in red flag symptoms which require expert medical intervention; (d) Lack of knowledge in non-pharmacological treatment such as  increase fiber in diet, adequate fluid intake and exercise; (e) Lack of knowledge in counseling the patient about diet related modification, physical exercise and to seek medical expert in case of failure of OTC drug treatment. Regular refresher courses have to be conducted by pharmacy colleges to educate community pharmacists to upgrade the knowledge in the disease management.
67-72
11
FORMULATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF ETODOLAC ENTRAPPED IN MICROSPONGE BASED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
*Swetha A, Gopal Rao M, Venkata Ramana K, Niyaz Basha B and Koti Reddy V
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
spherical particles that consist of a myriad of inter connecting voids within non-collapsible structures with a large porous surface. Microsponges containing Ethyl cellulose and Eudragit RS 100 were prepared by Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method using Etodolac as a model drug. The effects of different drug to polymer ratios on physical characteristics of the microsponges were investigated. Thermal behavior, surface morphology, particle size and pore structure of the microsponges were examined. In-vitro drug release rate from the microsponges was also investigated. In-vitro dissolution study showed that the release rate of the dug has been modified. This study presents a new approach based on microsponges for colon specific drug delivery.
73-80
12
FORMULATION AND INVITRO EVALUATION OF HYDROGEL MATRICES OF GLICLAZIDE MODIFIED RELEASE TABLETS
*Raja Rajeswari K, Abbulu K, Sudhakar M and Ravi Naik
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The work aimed at developing a modified release hydrogel formulation of poorly soluble drug, Gliclazide using a retardant hydrophilic polymer HPMC in two grades i.e., HPMC 15 cps and Methocel K4M.  All six formulations were developed and evaluated for the in-vitro drug release up to 16hrs and compared with that of the marketed formulation. GMF VI was found to have similar release pattern proving to show controlled release following zero order release by anomalous diffusion. The similarity and Dissimilarity factors were found to be 1.12 and 93.99 respectively.  Thus the formulation was found to be advantageous in reducing the dosing intervals and enhancing the patient compliance.
81-87
13
A VALIDATED RP-HPLC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF VENLAFAXINE FROM TABLETS
*Chatanyaprasad MK, Vidyasagar G, Sambasiva Rao KRS and Ramanjeneyulu S
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
An accurate, precise and simple rapid reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed and validated for estimation of venlafaxine in tablet dosage forms. The mobile phase consisted of buffer (pH 3.9; adjusted with ortho phosphoric acid) and acetonitrile at a ratio of 35:65 v/v and mobile phase pumped at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min with PDA detection at 227nm. The linearity range was found to be 20-60 μg/mL. The method was successfully validated and it was concluded that the developed method was accurate, sensitive, precise, robust and useful for the routine quality control of venlafaxine in pharmaceutical dosage forms.
88-91
14
AZADIRACHTA INDICA (NEEM): IT’S ECONOMIC UTILITY AND CHANCES FOR COMMERCIAL PLANNED PLANTATION IN NANDED DISTRICT
*Brototi Biswas and Kaplay RD
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Neem is the most versatile, multifarious tree with immense potential. However in the study area there is no utilization of Neem in medicinal, industrial or agricultural industry, although there is wild growth of Neem tree in the study area. The study finds out the multifarious uses of Neem along with the potential areas for commercial Neem plantation. Exact demarcation of land pertaining to possible sites of Neem commercial cultivation has been done keeping in view the already existence of wild growing Neem in those areas. The study also finds out the possible reasons for known development of Neem based industry in the study area, though this kind of industry is quite developed in India and at the same time money churning.
100-104
15
SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF 1-SUBSTITUTED IMIDAZOLE DERIVATIVES
*Prasanthy G, Venkata Ramana K, Koti Reddy V, Nirmala K and Ramesh Kumar N
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In the present study, a new series of 1-substituted imidazole derivatives were synthesized taking different anilines and sulfonamides as substitutions. The chemical structures were confirmed by means of IR, 1H-NMR and Mass spectral data. The compounds were screened for their anticancer and antimicrobial activities. N-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzamide exhibited highest activity against cervical cancer. 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-N-(4-(N-(5-methylisoxazol-4-yl) sulfamoyl) phenyl) benzamide showed good antifungal activity. 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-N-(4-(N-thiazol-4-ylsulfamoyl) phenyl) benzamide showed good antibacterial activity.
92-99
16
SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF TELMISARTAN AND AMLODIPINE BESYLATE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM BY RP - HPLC
*Paul Richards M, Bharat Kumar D, Mohammad Y, Karunakar Reddy and Siddhartha B
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The chromatographic analysis was performed on ODS symmetry C18 column (150 &times; 4.6 mm, 5 &micro; particle size) with mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer (pH 4.0) in the ratio of 60:40 v/v, at a flow rate of 1.2 mL/min and eluents monitored at 237 nm. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness and application for assay as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The retention times of amlodipine besylate and telmisartan were 2.633 and 5.600 min, respectively. The calibration curves of peak area versus concentration, which was linear from 2.5-15 &micro;g/mL for amlodipine besylate and 20-120 &micro;g/mL for telmisartan, had regression coefficient (r2) greater than 0.999. The method had the requisite accuracy, precision, and robustness for simultaneous determination of amlodipine besylate and telmisartan in tablets. The proposed method is simple, economical, accurate and precise, and could be successfully employed in routine quality control for the simultaneous analysis of amlodipine besylate and telmisartan in tablets. <br /><br />
105-109
17
EXPLORING SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES FOR INTRANASAL ADMINISTRATION OF STREPTOMYCIN
*Indu Pal Kaur and Manoj Kumar Verma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Streptomycin, the foremost class of drugs called aminoglycosides to be discovered is the only antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis. Streptomycin cannot be given orally, but must be administered by regular intramuscular injections as it is reported to have unreliable absorption throughout the GIT. Further to this, its use in cerebral tuberculosis is minimal as it does not cross the blood brain barrier and drug induced irreversible ototoxicity (Type B toxicity) additionally limits its use. Furthermore, streptomycin is majorly excreted unchanged in urine, as a result of which it is accumulated in kidneys, leading to nephrotoxicity when given continuously for more than 2-3 months. Hence the treatment with streptomycin cannot exceed beyond this period. In the present work we propose the newer drug delivery concepts for effective delivery of streptomycin in a bioavailable form with minimal side effects. Further, a nasal route of administration is also proposed to accomplish its rapid delivery to the brain and diminish the side effects associated with its use considering a controlled slow release from the developed system. Enhancing bioavailability and minimizing serious side effects with suggestion of a noninvasive nasal route would help successfully alleviate systemic and cerebral tubercular infections.
110-117
18
EFFECT OF BACOPA ON MEMORY DEFICIT PRODUCED BY CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION OF TOPIRAMATE IN RATS
*Deval K, Vaibhav S and Krishna KL
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Epilepsy is a most common disease mainly occurring in children and elderly patients. Cognitive disorders are common in patients, who are under the treatment of epilepsy. Topiramate is, one of the widely used anticonvulsants, is known to adversely affect cognitive function. In this context we have studied the memory deficit function of Topiramate on chronic administration in albino rats. Topiramate was administered for successive 14 days in rats. Bacoppa monniera extract powder (BM) 20% was co-administered along with topiramate from 8th day of treatment. Morris water maze was employed to evaluate learning and memory using parameter like Escape Latency Time (ELT), Time Spent in Target quadrant (TSTQ) and estimation of brain Acetyl cholinesterase level. Anticonvulsant activity of Topiramate was evaluated in presence of BM on PTZ induced convulsion and MES induced convulsion in rat model. Topiramate has significantly produced memory deficit in rats as it increases ELT, decreases TSTQ and increases AchE levels. When BM was given along with Topiramate from the 8th day of treatment, significantly reversed Topiramate induced impairment as it decreases ELT, increases TSTQ and decreases AChE levels. Even when BM co-administered with Topiramate, it did not interact with Topiramate and Topiramate retain its anticonvulsant activity. The results provide evidence for potential corrective effect of BM in cognitive deficit associated with TP.
118-124
19
CELL PHONE INDUCED SPERMATIC & BIRTH DEFECTS ON ALBINO RAT
*Himanshu Bhusan Sahoo, Sarda Prasad Sarangi, Viren kumar Patel and Mohanlal kori
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The flooding of cell phone and towers in world market cause hazardous issue from public health to its future generation. This revengeful interaction between cell phone and human being is depends upon the time and frequency of exposure of electromagnetic waves, which emitted from cell phones. This radiation may cause genotoxic on exposed animals and also may affect to its future offspring. Here we give special attention on the defect of sperm cell on parent animal and gives birth defect to their offspring due to exposure of electromagnetic waves. This defect can be observed by using the male albino rats with the exposure of cell phone for a period of three months. The special cage was designed as mobile stand to keep mobile inside the cage. After termination period, the male animals were mated with female animals for observing birth defect. After gestation period, the delivery statuses of female animals were noted.&nbsp; The current result found that some congenital malformations were found in offspring e.g. infertility of parent animal, under weight of Offspring, Delivery of dead offspring, some physically changes in shape and size etc. This congenital character may be cause physically or mentally handicapped e.g. Change in mandible shape, Ear size, Skin pigmentation, Eye color, skeletal abnormalities etc on long term study. After mating period, the male animals were allowed for laperotomy e.g. sperm analysis. The sperm analysis was compared between the cell phone treated group and without cell phone treated group. The present finding concludes that there was significant damage (* P&lt; 0.05) i. e.&nbsp;&nbsp; 67.60 % of sperm cell in cell phone treated group for three month study. <br />
15-20
20
DEVELOPMENT OF VALIDATED HPTLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS QUANTIFICATION OF RUTIN AND QUERCETIN FROM BARK OF ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA
*Pradeep Hulikare Ananth, Saleemulla Khan, Raghu Chandrasekhar and Mohammed Ibrahim
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In traditional medicine, numerous plants have been used for cognitive disorders, including memory loss and antiaging. We document the medicinal plants used by people in Ondo State of Nigeria to alleviate memory loss and aging. Three hundred and twenty six persons (326) were randomly selected and interviewed on their knowledge of medicinal plants used in treating aging and memory loss. Respondents were recruited across the three vegetation types in the state, Okitipupa in swamp rain forest (113), Akoko in southern guinea savannah (110) and Ifedore in tropical rain forest (103). Occupations of the respondents were 30.4% herbalist, 19.9% herb sellers and others 49.7%. Results obtained from the ethnobotanical survey revealed 14 plants species commonly used as memory enhancer and 20 species as antiaging. Trees (61.8%) are used more than other plant forms, Herbs (17.7%), Shrubs (11.8%) and Climbers (5.9%). Further pharmacological work is recommended for the identified plant species for possible development of affordable anticholinesterate and neuro-protective drugs especially in a depressed economy like Nigeria.
33-38
21
PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF MULTIPLE-UNIT GASTRO RETENTIVE FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR ONDANSETRON HYDROCHLORIDE BASED ON GAS FORMATION TECHNIQUE
*Kishore Rapolu, Sathish Dharani and Madhusudan Rao Yamsani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In the present study UV-spectrophotometric and RP-HPLC methods were validated for the simultaneous analysis of acetaminophen and caffeine in marketed tablets. The methods were validated in terms of linearity, accuracy (% Recovery), precision (inter day, intra day and reproducibility) and robustness. Both the methods were linear (R2 = 0.998-0.999) and accurate (% recovery was 99.29% - 100.19% for UV method and 99.14% - 100.25% for HPLC method). The method was also found precise (% RSD&lt; 2%) and robust. Potency of five marketed brands was determined by both the methods and no statistically significant difference was noticed between the potency obtained from UV-spectrophotometric and RP-HPLC methods by paired t test at 5% significance level. Drug release from the marketed products complied compendia specification that indicates that test products are equivalent. Any one of the validated methods can be used for the analysis of acetaminophen and caffeine tablets.
46-54
22
MICROWAVE SYNTHESIS OF NOVEL CARBOHYDRATE POLYMER AND ITS USE IN PREPARATION OF LIQUID DETERGENTS
*Anand D. Deshpande, BB Gogte and BW Phate
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
During the last decades, a fast growing interest in natural, biodegradable and renewable materials has been noticed. As the current use of non-biodegradable surfactants is a drawback, there is a need to develop new families of &lsquo;green&rsquo; surfactant molecules with starch, sorbitol, sugar maleic anhydride and phthalic anhydride. It can be used as a useful ingredient in preparing liquid detergent by conventional batch heating process and novel microwave synthesis technique. microwave synthesis is very fast gives clean polar and more homogeneous product the conditions of voltage temperature and time of heating have been standardize the product has been successfully used in formulation of liquid detergent.
55-63
23
VALIDATED AND STABILITY INDICATING LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY METHOD FOR QUANTIFICATION OF BISOPROLOL FUMARATE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM
Kishore Rapolu, Sathish Dharani and Madhusudan Rao Yamsani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple and accurate liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the analysis of bisoprolol fumarate in tablets. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column utilizing a mobile phase of buffer/acetonitrile (75:25, v/v, pH 5.6) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The separation was performed at room temperature. Detection was carried out at 226 nm, using a diode array detector. The developed method was statistically validated for the linearity, accuracy, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, precise and specificity. The specificity of the method was ascertained by forced degradation studies; the degraded products were well separated from the analyte. The mean recovery for bisoprolol fumarate from tablets ranged between 99.87-100.43%. The proposed method is also found to be precise and robust. The method can be used for routine quality control analysis.
64-70
24
THE EFFECT OF MINOCYCLINE ON OXIDATIVE STRESS AND MEMORY DEFICITS IN AGED RATS
*Vivek Sharma, Subrahmanya GS and Ashok Kumar G
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Alzheimer&rsquo;s disease (AD) is a progressive, neurological and psychiatric age associated disorder. Ageing and age-related neurodegenerative disorders like AD are associated with Oxidative-nitritive stress that may cause impairment of learning and memory in animals and human beings. These losses reflect the failure of cellular processes that encode memory or disturbances in events that retrieve it. The oxidative stress play a major role on the aging process and associated cognitive decline, therefore antioxidant treatment may alleviate age-related impairment in spatial memory. Age-related morphological alterations of hippocampus and other areas associated with memory formation may be a reason for Cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the effects of Minocycline, a tetracycline derivative on spatial memory in aged male rats. In this study 24 months old male rats were used. Rats were divided into control and Minocycline groups and injected intraperitoneally (ip) for 25 days. Learning experiments were performed using Morris water maze. Spatial learning was significantly better in Minocycline treated rats compared to Aged rats. Minocycline treatment elicited a significant decrease of lipid peroxidation and nitrittive stress. A significant increase of glutathione peroxidase, catalase and SOD activity was also observed in Minocycline treated rats compared with aged animals. In conclusion, we demonstrated that Minocycline increases spatial memory performance in aged male rats and this increase may be related to suppression of lipid peroxidation and other oxidative stress parameters.&nbsp; The results of such studies may be useful in pharmacological modification of aging process.
71-79
25
PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF BAUHINIA RACEMOSA LAM CAESALPINACEAE SEED MUCILAGE AS TABLET BINDER
*Gangurde AB and Boraste SS
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of present investigation was to evaluate Bauhinia racemosa Lam. Caesalpinaceae seed mucilage as a binder for pharmaceutical dosage forms. Natural mucilages are economic, easily available and found useful as tablet binder. No work has been reported on it as a tablet binder. Granules were prepared with its varying concentrations and evaluated for tablet characteristics. Wet granulation technique was used for the preparation of amoxicillin trihydrate granules. The binder concentrations used in the formulation were 2, 4, 6 &amp; 8 % w/w. The evaluation of granules showed 0.52 to 0.72 mm granule size, 28 to 31 &ordm; angles of repose and 20.53 to 11.81 % fines. The evaluation of tablets showed 3.52-0.89% w/w friability, 4 to 12 min disintegration time and more than 90% dissolution in 60 min. Tablets at 8% w/w binder concentration showed more optimum results as tablet binder. The mucilage was found to be useful for the preparation of uncoated tablet dosage form.
80-83
26
QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF DNA ISOLATED FROM LEAVES AND STEMS OF COLEUS AROMATICUS
*Soni Himesh , Singhai AK and Sharma Sarvesh
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Medicinal plants play a vital role to preserve human health. The genus, Coleus consists of herbs, that are widespread in all over India and represents highly valuable plant species having therapeutic and neutraceutical importance. Genetic variation is essential for long term survival of species and it is a critical feature in conservation. For efficient conservation and management, the genetic composition of the species in different geographic locations needs to be assessed. Plants are attracting more attention among contemporary pharmacy scientists because some human diseases resulting from antibiotic resistance have gained worldwide concern. A number of methods are available and are being developed for the isolation of nucleic acids from plants. The different parts of Coleus aromaticus were studied for their nucleic acid content by using spectrophotometric analysis. In order to measure DNA content of the Leaves and stems of C.aromaticus, Spectrophotometry serves various advantages i.e. non-destructive and allows the sample to be recovered for further analysis or manipulation. Spectrophotometry uses the fact that there is a relationship between the absorption of ultraviolet light by DNA/RNA and its concentration in a sample. This article deals with modern approaches to develop a simple, efficient, reliable and cost-effective method for isolation, separation and estimation of total genomic DNA from various parts of the same species.
84-89
27
ANTI BACTERIAL POTENTIAL OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF TAGETES ERECTA LINN
Kiranmai M and Mohammed Ibrahim
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was carried out to investigate the antibacterial effect of different extracts of leaves and flowers of Tagetes erecta Linn. After performing preliminary phytochemical screening and thin layer chromatography, antibacterial study was evaluated according to the agar diffusion method by using gram positive B.cereus, S. aureus and gram negative E.coli, P. aeruginosa. This study was shown that pet ether extract of leaves and ethylacetate extract of flower of Tagetes erecta significantly inhibit the growth of bacteria dose dependently.
90-96
28
HYPOGLYCEMIC AND ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF TUBEROUS ROOTS OF DECALEPIS HAMILTONII IN NORMAL AND STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
*Venkata Suresh J, Ganapaty S and Venkat Rao N
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Alcoholic and aqueous extract of tuberous roots of Decalepis hamiltonii (DH) were prepared and given individually orally at different doses to different groups of rats fasted for 18 h (both normal and streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic albino rats). The serum glucose levels were measured initially at 0 h (before treatment) and at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 h after the treatment. The alcoholic extract of tuberous roots of D. hamiltonii (AETRDH) at higher dose (200 mg/kg) produced maximal serum glucose lowering effect in both normal and STZ induced diabetic rats. The aqueous extract of tuberous roots of D. hamiltonii (AQETRDH) produced maximal percent reduction in serum glucose levels with higher dose (400 mg/kg). AETRDH and AQETRDH produced hypoglycemic and antidiabetic activities at 3 h in normal and STZ induced diabetic rats in a dose dependent manner. The effect produced by AETRDH was found better than that of standard gliclazide (2 mg/kg) an oral hypoglycemic agent. The AETRDH has exhibited higher and better hypoglycemic and antidiabetic activity for a prolonged period than that of the AQETRDH.
101-108
29
CYCLODEXTRINS: NANOCARRIERS FOR NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY
*Kishore Rapolu, Vinaydas Aatipamula, Kavitha Jayapala Reddy and Swathi Voruganti
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Cyclodextrins are cyclic (&alpha; -1, 4)-linked oligosaccharides of &alpha; -D-glucopyranose containing a relatively hydrophobic central cavity and hydrophilic outer surface. Cyclodextrins, which can&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; serve as solubilising and stabilizing agent of drug, are very significant in improving the bioavailability of drug, increasing the solubility, decreasing the stimulation, and masking the Smell. The objective of this review is to discuss and summarize some of the findings and application of novel cyclodextrin based nanocarriers.&nbsp; The nanoparticles, taking cyclodextrins as the matrix, can enhance the capability of encapsuling the guest molecule; efficiently regulate the drug release rate and targeting of drug. This review also highlights the molecular structure, properties like complexation solubility, etc. of cyclodextrins and focuses on its usage in various nanocarriers like liposomes, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, magnetic nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles and nanosponges. Thus cyclodextrins, because of their continuing ability to find several novel applications, are expected to solve many problems associated with the delivery of different novel drugs through different approaches of nanotechnology.
109-116
30
EFFECTS OF BINDERS, LUBRICANTS AND FILLERS ON DRUG RELEASE FROM DILTIAZEM HYDROCHLOIDE BI-LAYERED MATRIX TABLETS OBTAINED BY DIRECT COMPRESSION AND WET GRANULATION TECHNIQUE
*Naga Raju Potnuri, Devala Rao G, Srinivasa Rao A, Gnaneshwar Reddy M and Shashidhar Reddy S
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study is aimed to study and investigate the effects of binders, lubricants and fillers influencing the drug release from the Diltiazem hydrochloride bi-layered matrix tablets containing matrix components such as natural polymer (Gum Olibanum) and hydrophilic polymer (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose). The amount of drug loading did not affect the drug release which was influenced by the hydrodynamic force and the matrix composition. An increase in the binder concentration (eg: 10, 20 and 30%) correspondingly increased the release rate of drug from matrices except gelatin as a binder. Moreover, incorporation of soluble diluents in core or barrier could enhance the drug release. The release kinetics and mechanism of drug release by regression coefficient analysis and Higuchi constant and Peppas exponential release model equation were also investigated.&nbsp; It was observed that all the fabricated tablets delivered the drug following Higuchi diffusion mechanism and the release mechanism of DHL from matrix tablets indicated Fickian transport mechanism. The in-situ interactions between the drug, polymers and excipients (binders, lubricants and fillers, etc.,) during wet granulation process are also investigated by DSC examination. Most dissolution profiles of the prepared DHL bi-layered tablets provided a better fit to zero order kinetic than to first order kinetic and Higuchi&rsquo;s equation. All the batches were evaluated by physical parameters like &ldquo;weight uniformity, hardness, friability, drug content uniformity&rdquo; and in vitro drug release characteristics as per USP XXIV monograph. The binder&rsquo;s [starch, gelatin and polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000)] effect on drug release from the dosage form was also investigated.
117-128
31
ENHANCEMENT OF TRANSDERMAL DELIVERY SYSTEM AND ANTIDIABETIC APPROACH: AN OVERVIEW
*Suresh C. Joshi and Nakuleshwar Dut Jasuja
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The&nbsp; modern&nbsp; era&nbsp; has&nbsp; witnessed&nbsp; development&nbsp; of&nbsp; alternate&nbsp; and&nbsp; successful&nbsp; routes&nbsp; of&nbsp; drug delivery system i.e. Transdermal Drug Delivery System (TDDS). In a broad sense, it includes all topically administered drug formulations intended to deliver the active ingredient into the general circulation. Increasing prevalence of diabetes is presently pushing strong demand for novel drug delivery devices. Most of the antidiabetic drugs today are available in injectable form through syringes, pens, pumps and needle-free devices. Today about 74% of drugs are taken orally and are found not to be as effective as desired. Innovations in drug delivery systems have not only enabled the successful implementation of many of these novel pharmaceuticals, but have also permitted the development of new medical treatments with existing drugs. The creation of TDDS has been one of the most important innovations. This article provides an overview on various techniques and new antidiabetic approaches of TDDS.
129-149
32
ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF ANANAS COMOSUS L. LEAVES IN STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
*Arun Babu Vuyyuru, Govindarao M, Ravi Chandra Sekhara Reddy D, Harish B, Vishwanath J and Amarnath Reddy G
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was to investigate the presence of Antidiabetic activity on the hydro-alcoholic extract of Ananas comosus L. Leaves. The extracts were obtained using soxhelation method and the Antidiabetic activity tested using streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. After the oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract at doses of 200 mg/kg, 400mg/kg and 600 mg/kg body weight blood glucose levels and body weights were monitored at specific intervals. In chronic model of diabetic, hydro-alcoholic extract of Ananas comosus L.leaves (HEAC) at a dose of 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, 600 mg/kg and glibenclamide (5 mg/kg) were administered for 21 days. In our study, both glibenclamide and HEAC significantly decreases fasting blood glucose and increases the body weight in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats as compared to the animals in the diabetic control group. The antidiabetic activity of HEAC was comparable to that of standard drug glibenclamide at a dose of 5 mg/kg.&nbsp; The present investigation reveals that hydroalcoholic leaves extract of dose 600mg/kg showing good antidiabetic property in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. This investigation concludes Ananas comosus L. Leaves hydroalcholic extract possess Antidiabetic activity against streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. <br />
142-147
33
NEEDLE FREE INJECTION TECHNOLOGY: A REVIEW
*Vishnu P, Sandhya M, Sreesh Kiran R, Vani ChV and Naveen Babu K
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Needle-free injection systems are novel ways to introduce various medicines into patients without piercing the skin with a conventional needle. They can take the form of power sprays, edible products, inhalers, and skin patches. Needle-free systems are designed to solve these problems making them safer, less expensive, and more convenient. It is anticipated that these systems will increase the incidence of vaccination and reduce the amount of prescribed antibiotics. Moreover, they should reduce the number of needle stick accidents that have resulted in some health care workers contracting diseases. Today, they are a steadily developing technology that promises to make the administration of medicine more efficient and less painful. Companies are still working on producing devices that are safer and easier to use. They are also working on alternatives which can deliver even more types of medicines.
148-155
34
SCREENING OF NOOTROPICS: AN OVERVIEW ON PRECLINICAL EVALUATION TECHNIQUES
*Mali AA, Shenoy PA, Bandawane DD, Nipate SS and Chaudhari PD
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Nootropics are also referred as smart drugs, memory enhancers, and cognitive enhancers. They are reported to improve mental function such as cognition, memory, intelligence, motivation, attention and concentration. They are thought to be work by altering the availability of brains supply of neurochemicals, by improving the brains oxygen supply or by stimulating nerve growth. Alzheimer&rsquo;s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegerative disorder which affects older individuals and is the most common cause of dementia. It may progress to a totally vegetative state. Atrophy of cortical and sub-cortical areas is associated with deposition of &beta;-amyloid protein in the form of senile plaques and formation of neurofibrillary tangles. There is marked cholinergic deficiency in the brain, though other neurotransmitter systems are also affected. Various measures to augement cholinergic transmitter in the brain have been tried. The relatively cerebroselective anti-ChEs have been approved for clinical use. There are number screening models available for preclinical evaluation of nootropics drugs. Newer models are developed in accordance with limitations of the earlier one. In-vitro methods inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity is measured by determining IC50 with the help of Log probit analysis. In ex-vivo cholinesterase inhibition method the dose response relationship determined for drugs such as physostigmine and tacrine. Studies on molecular form of AchEs are carried in rat frontal cortex and striatum for drug such as donepezil, tacrine. Agents which are H3 receptor agonist are evaluated for [3H] Ach release activity in rat using rat brain slices. The binding affinity of potential nicotinic cholinergic agonist in brain using agonist ligand is determined by [3H]-N- methyl carbamylcholine binding nicotinic cholinergic receptors in rat frontal cortex. In In-vivo methods the inhibitory passive avoidance the test are carried on animals to test the learning and memory capacity of animal by suppressing a particular behavior. It includes step down, step through, two compartment test, up-hill avoidance, scopolamine induced test, and ischemia induced amnesia, memory impairments in basal forebrain. In active avoidance conditioned stimulus is given to the animal, which gives noxious stimulus as a result. It includes runway avoidance, shuttle box avoidance, jumping avoidance. In discrimination learning animals have no choice between the conditioned stimuli. Studies on aged monkeys provides additional advantage for neurobehavioral animal model of aging in that many of behavioral processes thought to be affected by aging.
159-180
35
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF HERBAL TABLET CONTAINING METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM
*Uma Shankar Mishra, Murthy PN, Sudhir Kumar Sahoo and Kanhu Charana Sahu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present paper deals with formulation and evaluation of herbal tablets prepared from methanol extract of the selected plant. A solid pharmaceutical dosage formulation using a novel dry plant extract (stem barks) using various excipients viz., sprays dried lactose, starch 1500, and Aerosil-200 and magnesium stearate by direct compression method. The absorption curve of Calophyllum inophyllum Methanolic extract showed characteristic absorption maximum at 278 nm in 0.1N HCl. The drug obeyed Beer&rsquo;s law in the concentration range of 10mcg/ml to 180mcg/ml, and it was found to be linear with r2 = 0.999, regression equation Y = 0.013x + 0.005. It was found that the release rate of drug increased as the percentage of starch 1500 was increased from 10 mg to 30mg. As the concentration of starch 1500 increased the release rate increased from 67.49% to 99.35% (CIT4) in 6 hours by increasing the concentration of starch 1500. The optimized formulation CIT4 of the drug was subjected to accelerated stability studies and the results were reproducible, even on tablets that had been stored for about 3 months at 250C/60% RH, 300C/60% RH and 400C/75% RH.&nbsp;&nbsp; <br />
181-186
36
ULTRAFAST SPECTROSCOPY: A REVIEW
*Rajeesha Surapaneni, Rohini P, Santosh Kumar Vobbilireddi and Mounika G
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Spectroscopy is the major tool used for the determination of quantum energy levels in atoms, molecules, semiconductor etc. Ultrafast spectroscopy is a very wide field of research from departments of physics, chemistry, electrical engineering, biology and material science. The field of ultrafast spectroscopy includes the spectroscopic measurements for which electronic detectors are not fast enough to allow direct measurement phenomena. These time scales presently range from about 10 fs to 100 ps. It is based on the use of light pulses that have very short temporal duration to interrogate matter. To illustrate the advantages of ultrafast spectroscopy and explore some of its implications, a quantum- mechanical formalism is required. Collisions in room-temperature liquids occur on a few-fs time scale, so nearly all processes in liquids are ultrafast. An ultrafast spectroscopic method using monolithic column high-performance liquid chromatography was evaluated for the simultaneous determination of a drug discovery. Ultrafast 2D-IRspectroscopy has been applied to study the structure and vibrational dynamics.
187-197
37
WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA LEAVES IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS
*Suresh Babu AR and Karki SS
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Calotropis gigantea Linn. (Asclepiadaceae) a widely growing plant has been reported to possess number of medicinal properties. It has been reported as a traditional folk medicine for a variety of alignments. The plant C. gigantea is also used in some parts of India for wound healing in combination with other plants. However there are no scientific reports on wound healing activity of the plant C.gigantea. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate scientifically the wound healing activity of Petroleum ether, Benzene, Chloroform, Methanol and Aqueous extract of leaves of the plant C.gigantea by excision and incision wound healing models in rats. Wistar albino rats of either sex weighing between 160 and 200 g were topically treated with extracts was applied once daily in excision wound model. C.gigantea leaves extracts were given orally at a dose of 200mg/kg and 180 mg/kg (methanol extract) in incision wound healing model. Rats of standard groups were treated with 5% Povidone iodine ointment topically. The percentage wound closure; epithelization time, hydroxyproline content and scar area on complete epithelization were measured. Topical application of methanolic extract of C.gigantea leaves in excision wound model increased significantly the percentage of wound contraction by 12th day, i.e. 70.11&plusmn;0.54 compared with control 45.09&plusmn;0.53. Scar area and epithelization time were decreased from 21.56 to12.56 days when compared with control. In incision wound model breaking strength of wounds and hydroxyproline was increased significantly from 125.48&plusmn;0.78 in control up to 321&plusmn;0.99 with methanolic extract. Hence, the methanolic extract of C.gigantea leaves accelerated wound healing activity in rats and thus supports its traditional use.
195-199
38
A REVIEW ON HIGHLY SENSITIVE ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES IN BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES
*Sathish Kumar K, Rohini P, Santhosh Kumar N and Hemanth Kumar P
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Highly sensitive analytical techniques have allowed a massive increase in the amount of pharmacokinetic data which is useful to estimate the toxicity of the particular drugs. Generally available analytical techniques may not provide sufficient information to identify the all these toxic substances present in biological fluids at low concentrations. So, modifications to generally available analytical techniques are required. They can provide high sensitivity and selectivity of the analytical method towards the particular type of toxic substances. They provide reliable, robust sensitive, specific, quantitative assay procedures for the determination of drugs and metabolites in body fluids. The sensitivity of these techniques is up to nano-grams and pico-grams. Originally, the most common extraction method was liquid&ndash;liquid extraction (LLE). Solid-phase extraction (SPE) has become an increasingly popular extraction method. <br />
200-204
39
COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON BUCCAL DELIVERY
*Murali krishna K, Nagaraju T, Gowthami R, Rajashekar M, Sandeep S, Himabindu S and Shravan kumar Yamsani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The main aim for the oral delivery of most of the drugs as potential therapeutic agents is their extensive presystemic metabolism, instability in acidic environment resulting into inadequate and erratic oral absorption. Parenteral route of administration is the only established route that overcomes all these drawbacks associated with these orally less/inefficient drugs. But, these formulations are costly, have least patient compliance, require repeated administration, in addition to the other hazardous effects associated with this route. Buccal cavity was found to be the most convenient and easily accessible site for the delivery of therapeutic agents for both local and systemic delivery as retentive dosage forms, because it has expanse of smooth muscle which is relatively immobile, abundant vascularization, rapid recovery time after exposure to stress and the near absence of langerhans cells. Direct access to the systemic circulation through the internal jugular vein bypasses drugs from the hepatic first pass metabolism leading to high bioavailability. <br />
205-217
40
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A NEW STABILITY INDICATING HPLC METHOD FOR QUANTIFICATION OF PROCESS RELATED AND DEGRADATION IMPURITIES OF BICALUTAMIDE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORMS
*Palleshwar Rao G, JVLNS Rao, Lanka A. Rama Prasad and Srinivasu Pamidi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present work aims to develop and validate a stability indicating liquid chromatographic method for the estimation of process related and degradation impurities of Bicalutamide in tablet dosage form. Chromatographic separation was achieved on Waters Symmetry C18, (150 mm x 4.6 mm) 3.5&#61549;m particle size column using 0.1%v/v trifluoro acetic acid and 0.05%w/v sodium-1-octane sulphonic acid in water and 0.1%v/v trifluoroacetic acid in acetonitrile the ratio of 65:35 as mobile phase in isocratic elution mode. The analytes were monitored by a photo diode array (PDA) detector set at 270 nm and the flow rate was kept at 1.2mL/min. The method was validated in terms of Specificity, Precision, Ruggedness, Accuracy, Robustness and Linearity as per ICH guidelines.<br />
218-223
41
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS OF RANOLAZINE
*M Vanaja kumari, P Venkateswar reddy and M Sudhakar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of the present study was to prepare and characterize the Sustained release matrix tablets of Ranolazine using Kollidon&reg; SR. Kollidon&reg; SR is a polyvinyl acetate based excipient. Three different strengths i.e 375mg, 500mg and 750mg of ranolazine SR tablets were prepared by direct compression method and by using common blend. The influence of compression force was studied on the dissolution release profile of Ranolazine SR tablets. In vitro release studies were performed for all the formulations using USP type II apparatus (paddle method) in 900 ml of 0.1N hydrochloric acid at 50 rpm for 24 hours and analyzed by UV spectrophotometer at 272nm. Further, in-vitro release pattern of drug from the optimized formulation was compared with innovator formulation and it was found to be super imposable with the Innovator product RANEXA based on dissimilarity and similarity factors. <br />
224-229
42
SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF LOSARTAN AND ATORVASTATIN IN RAT PLASMA AND ITS APPLICATION TO PHARMACOKINETIC STUDY
*Shankar Ganesh G, Madhusudana K, Sai Shalini N and Ramakrishna Sistla
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, rapid, economic and precise RP-HPLC method for simultaneous analysis of Losartan (LOS) and Atorvastatin (ATR) in rat plasma has been developed and validated. Valsartan (VAL) was used as an internal standard. Extraction of the drug from the plasma was carried out by precipitation method. Analysis was performed using Kromasil C18 column (250 &#61620; 4.6 mm; 5&micro;) with mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.02 M sodium dihydrogen phosphate (containing 0.1% heptanesulphonic acid, pH adjusted to 3.0 with ortho phosphoric acid) in the ratio of 55:45 (v/v) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL min-1. Chromatographic separation was monitored at 235 nm. The method was linear over a range of 10-1000 ng mL&minus;1 for both the drugs. Limits of detection and Limits of quantification were 2.9 ng mL&minus;1 and 8.8 ng mL&minus;1 for LOS and 3.2 ng mL&minus;1 and 9.8 ng mL&minus;1&nbsp;&nbsp; ATR respectively. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, specificity, recovery and stability. The applicability of this method in pharmacokinetic studies was demonstrated.
260-271
43
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF DOXORUBICIN LIPOSOMES
*Prasanth VV, Maharshi S, Sam T. Mathew, Abin Abraham, Kiran Jadhav
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Doxorubicin is an effective anticancer drug used in the treatment of several cancers such as osteosarcoma, kaposis sarcoma. The usage of the drug is limited because of its adverse effects on the heart. To reduce the adverse effects and to increase the release rate doxorubicin is formulated into liposomal dosage form. The liposomes are prepared by the thin film hydration method.Using soyalecithin as the phospholipid. This study mainly explains about the effect of concentration of soyalecithin, cholesterol and DSPE-MPEG2000 on the particle size of formulated liposomes which ranges in between 0.766 &plusmn; 0.03&micro;m to 13.56 &plusmn;&nbsp; 0.10 &micro;m , drug entrappment efficiency of different formulations in which maximum entrapment efficiency was determined as 96.45 &plusmn; 0.95 % and minimum was 24.89 &plusmn; 1.18 % , zeta potential which is determainedd as -0.271 mV, in vitro drug release in which the the maximum sustain release was found as 41.45 &plusmn; 1.06 %&nbsp; and stability studies at different temperatures and maximum drug retention was found in refrigerated temperature 2-8 oC. <br />
294-298
44
HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ROOTS OF LAWSONIA INERMIS AGAINST PARACETAMOL AND ANTI-TUBERCULAR DRUGS INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS
*Ravishah S, Manjula SN, Mruthunjaya K, Krishnanand P, Pramod Chakravarthy KN, Madhu Raghav M, Javia Sweety and Mina Basirian
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was carried out to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of roots of Lawsonia inermis (LI)&nbsp;&nbsp; ethanolic&nbsp;&nbsp; extract in paracetamol and anti tubercular drugs induced hepatotoxicity in&nbsp;&nbsp; Wistar rats. Roots of LI were extracted with alcohol and water which has given ethanolic extract of LI &amp; aqueous extract of LI. Preliminary phytochemical tests were done. The in vitro hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of lawsonia inermis (LIALC) and aqueous extract of lawsonia inermis (LIAQ) were assessed. The in vivo hepatoprotective activity of LIALC was investigated against Paracetamol and Anti-TB drugs induced hepatotoxicity in Rats. Phytochemical analysis revealed presence of lactones, &#64258;avonoids, sterols, terpenes, carbohydrates, tannins compounds, which have been known for their hepatoprotective activities. In both in vivo and in vitro hepatoprotective models, the levels of cytosolic enzymes, a marker of oxidative damage to hepatocytes, were significantly reversed to almost to normal in dose dependent manner.&nbsp; Both the extracts significantly increased the levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione (GSH) as compared to control. LI possesses marked hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol and anti tubercular drugs induced hepatotoxicity in rats as evidenced by both in vivo and in vitro results. The activity may be attributed to the individual or combined action of phytoconstituents present in it.<br />
306-316
45
A VALIDATED RP-HPLC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF GUAIFENESIN AND PSEUDOEPHEDRINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM
*Rahul Sahu, NPS Sengar, Parul D. Mehta and NS Lodhi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, accurate, rapid, precise, specific and cost effective reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method have been developed and subsequently validated for simultaneous estimation of Guaifenesin (GUA) and Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (PSE) in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Chromatography is carried out isocratically at 25&deg;C &plusmn; 0.5&deg;C on an Prontosil C-18 column (4.6 x 250mm, 5&mu; particle size) with a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile-methanol-phosphate buffer (pH-5.0) (72:8:20, v/v/v) at a flow rate of 1.2 mL/min. Detection was carried out using a PDA detector at 218 nm. Parameters such as linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, specificity and ruggedness are studied as reported in the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The retention times for GUA and PSE are 2.99 &plusmn; 0.5 min and 5.04 &plusmn; 0.5 min respectively. The linearity range for GUA and PSE are 15-75 &micro;gml-1 and 6-30 &micro;gml-1 respectively. The percentage recoveries of GUA and PSE are 98.72 and 98.35% respectively. The correlation coefficients for both components are close to 1. The relative standard deviations for three replicate measurements in three concentrations of samples in tablets are always less than 2%. <br /><br />
317-321
46
ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC BARK EXTRACT OF VITEX NEGUNDO Linn
*Sampath kumar Ch, Rajender Arutla and Sunil Kumar M
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was undertaken to assess the analgesic effect of methanolic extract of Vitex negundo bark in albino rats. The analgesic action in acute pain models was studied by tail flick method and hot plate method. The methanolic extract of Vitex negundo bark was screened for phytochemical analysis and it&rsquo;s revealed the presence of all components. The adult Sprague- Dawley rats were divided into four groups of six each and maintained under ideal laboratory conditions. Group I was taken as control and group II treated with the standard drug diclofenac sodium (9mg/kg), the methanolic extract of Vitex negundo bark 200mg/kg and 300mg/kg were fed to group III, IV. It is observed that the both Vitex negundo bark shows considerable analgesic effect in acute pain models which is less than the effect of Diclofenac group. The higher dose groups of Vitex negundo bark extract (300mg/kg) was revealed more activity than their corresponding lower dose. <br />
322-326
47
PHARMA @ 2020 - (THE NEXT CENTURY PHARMA TREND)
*Shashank Tiwari, Navneet Batra and Mohd. Sohrab
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Well said that research is a never ending field but still is always motivates to one &amp; all for thinking beyond in order to create miracles. And the 2020 will be miracles world for pharma sector. At that time the time will be OTC medicines. The Indian pharmaceutical sector is the highly organized sector; it ranks very high amongst all the thirds world countries in the term of technology, quality and the vast range of medicines that are manufactured.
327-329
48
ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITY OF THE PLUMERIA RUBRA LEAVES EXTRACT
*Vimlesh Misra, Sheikh Mubeen Uddin, Vivek Srivastava and Umashankar Sharma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Antipyretic effect of ethanolic extract of the leaf of plumeria rubra was investigated. Intraperitoneal administration of boiled milk at a dose 0.5 ml/kg body weight in albino rabbit leads to pyrexia. Intraperitoneal (i. p. route) administration of ethanolic extract of the leaf of plumeria rubra at a dose 200mg/kg body weight were shown significantly reduce the elevated body temperature of rabbit which was compared with&nbsp; aspirin (Standard Drug) and solvent used.
330-332
49
COMPARISON STUDIES OF UNCOATED & ENTERIC COATED ASPIRIN FORMULATIONS
*K. Gouthami, M. Raghavendra Praneeth, Ch. Madhu Sudan, C. Vandhit Reddy, Roopa Patel, Sarojini N, AS Rao and V. Lokeswara Babu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Aspirin is belonging to the class of NSAID having analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet activity at regular normal doses. At higher doses it causes gastrointestinal ulcers, stomach bleeding etc. This effect of aspirin can be minimized by preventing the drug exposure to the gastric region which is achieved by using enteric coating of the aspirin tablet. The present study involves comparison of physical evaluation of uncoated tablets with that of enteric coated tablets of Aspirin.
333-336
50
OCCURRENCE OF CHLORIDE ENRICHED CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTAL IN CISSUS QUADRANGULARIS LINN
*Rupali Taur, Shantanu Chavan and Narayan Pandhure
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Cissus quadrangularis Linn. is known for its ability to accelerate the healing process of bone fracture in Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plant. It is a rich source of vitamin C, &beta; carotene and calcium. The plant part used in this study is stem of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. The fleshy stem are ground in a heavy duty blender and sieved through a 0.20mm sieve. The suspension obtained is suspended in distilled water. The crystals are concentrated at the bottom of a test tube. The supernatant must be washed until it is free of plant pigment and other organic substances. The calcium crystals have well defined and sharp peaks, indicating very high crystallinity. Secondly the profile shows highest peak of calcium for the first time. Peaks for chloride are the indicators of enrichment of chloride in Calcium oxalate crystals. The objective of this study is to extract, to study crystal morphology and chemical constituents of crystals.
337-340
51
TOXICOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION IN LEGAL CONTEXT FOR VETERINARIANS
*Modi CM, Dudhatra GB, Avinash Kumar, Chukewar AB, Awale MM, Patel HB and Mody SK
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Due to rapid industrial expansion and change in socio-economic dynamics of human population, the death and also cruelty to animals due to toxicant, poisons or industrial or agricultural chemicals is very common social phenomenon now a days. The prevention of such incidences depends on investigation of incidence, finalizing causes of death and cruelty to animals and formulating policy based on findings and experiences. Under such toxicological investigation, Veterinarian plays key role by offering his services to law enforcing agency for performing the post-mortem, collection of samples, submitting the samples to forensic laboratory and interpretation of results hereby obtained. All these functions become very crucial when there is involvement of legal disputes or conflicts. Under such condition, Veterinarian is authorized sources of expert evidence and opinions as per Expert Witness Act of India. Veterinarian has to present his findings and related opinions in the presence of court jury. Admissibility of expert evidences and opinions depends on accuracy of Veterinarian&rsquo;s professional functions performed during investigation of cases. It is a challenging job for Veterinarian to investigate veterolegal cases in field condition in order to protect the interest of animal or owner or society or government. So the intersection of knowledge of toxicological and legal matters is of vital for Veterinarians to understand and to conduct such investigation in most correct ways. The present review is focused on blending of technicality of toxicological investigation and its legality for the use of court and jury. <br />
341-347
52
EFFECT OF OFLOXACIN ON TIZANIDINE PHARMACOKINETICS IN RATS
*Dipika S. Sherkar, Vaibhav G. Bhamre, Deelip V. Derle, Minal R. Narkhede, Jitesh H. Shet and Amit Tiwari
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Objective of this work was to study the effect of ofloxacin on bioavailability and other pharmacokinetic parameters of tizanidine in rats. A single dose parallel design was used with 36 animals randomly divided in reference group and test group.&nbsp; All the rats received 7 mg tizanidine orally and in test group 200 mg ofloxacin was co-administered with tizanidine. Nine blood samples were collected from each animal over a 24-hour period. Plasma tizanidine concentrations were determined by HPTLC using UV detection, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by non-compartmental method. The mean value of the peak plasma concentration (Cmax) of tizanidine decreased significantly (8.47%, P value &lt;0.001; 90% CI, 91.32% -91.72%) in animals who had given the drug with ofloxacin (Cmax , 31.54 &plusmn; 0.16 &micro;g/mL) than those who had given the drug with water (Cmax, 34.46 &plusmn; 0.07 &micro;g/mL). The area under the plasma concentration time curve from t=0 to time of the last measureable concentration (AUC0-t) was also increased significantly (17.17%, P value &lt;0.001; 90% CI, 116.99% -117.34%). Similarly, the value of area under the concentration-time curve from t=0 to in&#64257;nity (AUC0-&infin;) value was increased significantly (5.24% %, P value &lt;0.001; 90% CI, 103.77% -104.83%); these changes were not within the 90% CI range of 80.000 - 125.000 % which is the acceptable range of bioequivalence. Tmax, T1/2, terminal elimination rate constant (&lambda;z), CL/F value, Vd/F value, AUMC0-t and AUMC0-&infin; values, MRT0-t and MRT0-&infin; values and % relative bioavailability (Fr) value for test group were also determined and compared with reference group. Form results the values of Cmax and AUC0-&infin; were not within the bioequivalence acceptable range and from statistical analysis the reference and test samples were found to be bio-in-equivalent, suggesting the improved tizanidine oral bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy due to co-administration of ofloxacin.
348-352
53
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITIES OF ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACT OF ROOTS OF EUGENIA JAMBOLANA
*S.M. Patil and R. Saini
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the ethyl acetate extract of roots of Eugenia jambolana. The ethyl acetate extract of Eugenia jambolana in gum acacia was administered orally at 150 and 300mg/kg. The results of the present study revealed that the treatment groups showed a significant reduction in paw volume in a dose dependent manner indicating their anti-inflammatory action, which had provided a proof for the scientific validation of their ethno pharmacological property.
353-355
54
COMPARATIVE PET STUDY BETWEEN TWO PROSTAGLANDIN DERIVATIVES OPHTHALMIC SOLUTIONS
*Kashyap Nagariya, Piyush Sharma, Anil Bhandari, Sarangdevot YS and Chouhan CS
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Although in vitro and in vivo laboratory studies have suggested that benzalkonium chloride (BKC) in ophthalmic solutions may be detrimental to corneal epithelial cells, multiple short- and long-term clinical studies have provided evidence supporting the safety of BKC. Despite the conflicting evidence, BKC is the most commonly used preservative in ophthalmic products largely due to its proven antimicrobial efficacy. This study was designed to characterize the preservative efficacy performance of two commonly used ocular hypotensive agents that employ BKC as preservative: latanoprost with 0.01% BKC and travoprost 0.02% BKC, in an isotonic buffer solution.
356-361
55
CHALLENGES IN TRANSDERMAL FORMULATION: IN VITRO EVALUATION
*Mudasir Mohamad and Roheena Jan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:PunctuationKerning/> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas/> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables/> <w:SnapToGridInCell/> <w:WrapTextWithPunct/> <w:UseAsianBreakRules/> <w:DontGrowAutofit/> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--> <p style="text-align: justify" class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size: 10pt">One of the most vital challenges for Transdermal Therapy is the skin, itself acting as a barrier. Hence, in this study, an attempt was made to elucidate the transdermal permeation potential of Surfactant (Brij-58 &amp; Brij-30)in comparison to terpene (clove oil) using Aceclofenac as a model drug. The <em>in vitro</em> skin permeation studies for aceclofenac in various drug solutions revealed that the drug in isotonic phosphate buffer was able to permeate skin with a flux which is not significant for transdermal permeation from any formulation. Addition of co- solvent (ethanol 95%) resulted in an increase in the flux. Different skin permeation enhancers were tried in an attempt to increase permeation of the drug in order to achieve the desired plasma concentration of aceclofenac. Enhancers tried included, Brij-58, Brij-30 and Clove oil. All skin permeation enhancers increased the flux of drug with respect to their respective controls. An increase in both the flux as well as permeability coefficient of the drug was seen when the concentration of enhancers was increased from 1% to 2% in case of Brij-58 and Brij-30 and from 1-10% in case of Clove oil. On the basis of these studies 2% Brij-58 which showed highest permeation potential was selected as permeation enhancer for the design of Transdermal Therapeutic System.</span></p> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" LatentStyleCount="156"> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} </style> <![endif]-->
362-365
56
TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS INFLUENCING FACTORS, STUDY METHODS AND THERAPEUTIC APPLICATIONS
*Ravi Theaj Prakash U and Padma Thiagarajan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Drug delivery across the skin offers several advantages, which includes bypassing of gastrointestinal tract and deviation from liver metabolism. Several drugs have been successfully assimilated through this route, which is in turn controlled by the drug lipophilicities and molecular weights along with their partition coefficients. The age and condition of the skin are also determining factors. However, an obvious barrier to this process is the stratum corneum which restricts efficient penetration of drugs. This drawback has been partially overcome by the use of permeation enhancers, and also by coercive techniques, which promote easy drug uptake, as proved by various in vitro and in vivo assays. Consequently, several transdermal delivery based therapeutic systems have been developed to treat various specific pathological conditions. The factors controlling drug uptake and penetration enhancers have been discussed in this review, along with some important therapeutic applications.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <br />
366-374
57
OPTIMIZATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS FOR MAXIMUM TANNASE PRODUCTION FROM CASHEW HUSK
*Lokeswari N
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Tannase production under solid-state fermentation was investigated using isolated Aspergillus oryzae. Among all agro-industrial waste material evaluated, cashew husk supported maximum tannase production. The metabolic processes of microorganisms are influenced by changes in parameters like Temperature, pH, incubation time, humidity etc., which are very specific for a particular organism. Microbial synthesis of enzymes in a SSF process are also affected by factors like particle size of substrate, water content, relative humidity, type and size of inoculum, control of temperature, period of cultivation, etc. Biotransformation of cashew husk tannin to gallic acid by SSF is also influenced by all the factors affecting tannase production, since the synthesized enzyme causes the breakdown of tannin to gallic acid and glucose.
375-379
58
DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF PRESS COATED TABLET BY USING RUPTURABLE MATERIAL (EC) COMBINED WITH ERODIBLE MATERIAL (KLUCEL EXF) OF ACECLOFENAC
*Mayee RV and Shinde PV
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a press-coated pulsatile drug delivery system intended for treatment of early morning stiffness and symptomatic relief from pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis with a distinct predetermined lag time of 6 h .Aceclofenac as a model drug by using various proportion of polymers such as rupturable material (EC) combined with erodible material (klucel EXF). Seven formulations were prepared and formulation F2 possessed good lag time time 6 hr and showed pulsatile drug delivery pattern the tablets were also evaluated for its hardness, friability and other In- vitro evaluation tests. All parameters complied with IP limits. Results of this study indicated that the combinations of rupturable material (EC) combined with erodible material (klucel EXF) are suitable to optimize pulsatile drug release formulation of aceclofenac. The formulation involved press coating of a rupturable coat around a rapidly disintegrating core tablet of aceclofenac.
380-385
59
ADVANCES IN CHIRAL SEPARATIONS: A REVIEW
*Bhawani S, Nagalakshmi Ch and Rohini P
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Chiral separation in forensic science is chemical separations of optically active isomers of drugs and metabolites. Specific functions of D-amino acids in humans are bound to lead to the revelation of D-amino acid abnormalities in human disorders. Therefore, high-throughput analysis techniques are warranted to determine D-amino acids in biological fluids. Two chromatographic techniques, a nonchiral derivatization with chiral (chirasil-L-val column) separation in a GC-MS system and a chiral derivatization with Marfey&rsquo;s reagent and LC- MS analysis were developed. The techniques for D-serine, L-serine, and glycine determination in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were validated. Toluene monooxygenases (TMOs) have been shown previously to catalyze region selective hydroxylation of substituted benzenes and phenols. TMOs are also capable of performing enantio selective oxidation reactions of aromatic sulfides. <br />
386-391
60
DIRECT ROOT REGENERATION AND INDIRECT ORGANOGENESIS IN SILYBUM MARIANUM AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL, ANTIBACTERIAL STUDIES OF ITS CALLUS
*S. Ahmed John and M. Koperuncholan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The morphogenic potential and free-radical scavenging activity of the medicinal plant, Silybum marianum L. (milk thistle) were investigated. Direct root regeneration and indirect organogenesis and preliminary phytochemical, antibacterial studies of its callus. From leaf explants the highly significance result was found on the NAA at 2 mg/l and KIN at 0.2 mg/l for the direct root induction and indirect organogenesis the 100% callus induction was obtained from leaf explants on 2, 4-D at 2.5 mg/l),and The 100% shoot initiation was obtained from NAA at 2 mg/l and the BAP at 1.5 mg/l and then it was transferred to the shoot elongation medium bearing the hormone concentration of GA3 at 2 mg/l. Finally, it was transferred to root induction medium bearing the hormone concentration of NAA at 2mg/l. the Preliminary Phytochemical showed the Sugar, Saponins, Amino acids, Tannins were occur in the chloroform and ethanol extracts of leaf and hypocotyl callus. More antimicrobial inhibitory activity was recorded for the gram-positive than the gram negative in all extract. <br />
392-400
61
ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY STUDY OF LEAVES AND BARK OF CASSIA FISTULA
*Dinanath D. Patil, Dnyandeo K. Mhaske and Machindra Patare Gurumeet C. Wadhawa
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Ethanol, methanol, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride, and hexane extracts from Cassia fistula were investigated for their in vitro antimicrobial properties, along with anti-inflammatory activity.&nbsp; All three extract of Cassia fistula were different in terms of their antibacterial activities. The Ethanol extract showed a stronger and broader spectrum of antibacterial activity. study was also carried out to evaluate the in-vitro antioxidant activities of ethanol, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride extract of Cassia fistula s .This was achieved by screening the two plant extracts at varying concentrations (10-50g/ml)using DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity. The results were analyzed statistically which showed that ethanol extract Cassia fistula had more antioxidant activity than standard antioxidant.Al extract was also studied for their anti-inflametry activity.<br /><br />
401-405
62
TOXICITY, STERILITY AND BIOCHEMICAL TESTING OF NOVEL DTP GROUP OF VACCINES
*Monika Sharma, Hemant Brahmne and Pallavi Bafna
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Conventionally, toxicogenic strains of C. diphtheria, C. tetani and B. pertussis are grown on a media of animal origin for production of DTP group of vaccines. This media poses various risks such as Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), microbial contamination and allergic reactions. To avoid such risks, media containing nutrients of vegetative origin are substituted. The present study involves the toxicity, biochemical and sterility testing of DTP group of vaccines produced on such vegetative media to determine their quality and safety. Toxicity tests are based on the observation that there are body weight changes characteristic to each vaccine and such standardized changes can be used as references for evaluating test vaccines. Sterility test was performed on the final bulk and lot to confirm that the product is free of bacterial and mycotic contamination. Biochemical tests were also carried out to determine the content of aluminium, thiomersal and formalin. The results confirmed that the DTP vaccine samples met the criteria set by I.P., 2007 for toxicity, sterility and safety. <br />
406-415
63
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ASTRAGALUS MEMBRANACEUS AGAINST DIARRHEAL BACTERIAL PATHOGENS
*Balachandar S, Jagadeeswari M, Dhanabalan R and Meenachi M
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Astragalus membranaceus (Fabaceae) is commonly used in medicine to treat a wide variety of infections. However, there is a lack of information on the effectiveness of A. membranaceus against microorganisms. The purpose of this study is to determine whether A. membranaceus inhibits bacterial growth in vitro. Methanolic and Ethanolic extracts of Astragalus membranaceus were prepared using dried root and were screened for phytochemical constituents. Tests for alkaloids, Saponins, Terpenoids, Flavonoids and cardiac glycosides were positive in both methanolic and ethanolic extracts. The evaluation of Antimicrobial activity of both the extracts was also carried out. The extracts were tested in disc diffusion assays against Diarrheal bacterial pathogens Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella, and Campylobacter. The results of antibacterial activity revealed that all the extract showed good inhibitory activity against all the tested pathogens. The activity of the extract was compared with standard antibiotics. <br />
416-418
64
MULTIPLE UNIT PELLET SYSTEMS: A REVIEW
*VR Sirisha K, K Vijaya sri, K Suresh and G Kamalakar Reddy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Compressed multiple unit pellet tablets/multiple unit particulate or pellet system commonly called MUPS are composed of polymer coated subunits namely pellets; which are embedded in an inert excipients matrix designed to overcome the difficulties in administering capsules and improved physico-chemical stability compared to suspensions. The functional coating like drug coating, barrier coating, enteric polymer coating is usually applied in a fluid bed coating processor provides each subunit with the characteristic desired drug release properties. The size, shape and surface morphology of the pellets to be coated are the prerequisites for coating of pellets. Design of MUPS involves formulating pellets by different techniques and further compression of these pellets into rapidly disintegrating tablets; disintegrate rapidly in the oral cavity for the delivery of coated pellets into the gastrointestinal tract or the site of release of the drug. Inspite of the challenges like content uniformity of the compressed tablets, ability of the film to withstand compression force; MUPS occupy a prominent role in formulating drugs due to their greater patient compliance; process, formulation and therapeutic advantages.
419-425
65
PHARMACOGNOSTICAL EVALUATION OF ROOT OF ALPINIA GALANGA WILLD
*Prasad V. Kadam, Kavita N. Yadav, Ramesh S. Deoda, Vidya S. Navasare, Rakesh S. Shivatare and Manohar J. Patil
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Pharmacognostic studies of crude drug plays a very important role in identification the purity and quality of crude drugs. Medicinal plants which are found on earth have renowned medicinal significance and their usage is increasing day by day in our daily life. Different investigations are in continuously progressing towards exploring the pharmacological and therapeutical properties of herbal drugs. The present work embodies the investigations carried out to establish methods for quality control of drugs as per WHO guidelines for pharmacognostically untapped drugs. The root of Alpinia galanga, belonging to the family Zingiberaceae is one of the same. Complete botanical evaluations which comprise macroscopic, microscopy, physicochemical parameters and phytochemical screening were carried out for the quality control of the drug. Thus it was thought worthwhile to explore this most functional plant on the basis of this standardization parameter. The study will provide referential information for the correct identification of the crude drug. <br />
426-431
66
COMPLEXATION, OPTIMIZATION, FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CLINDAMYCIN PHOSPHATE GEL USING ZINC ACETATE DIHYDRATE
*Manoj Kumar Mishra and Pramod Kumar Biswal
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A stable zinc-clindamycin complex gel was formed by optimizing concentration of clindamycin phosphate (1.188gm) and zinc acetate dehydrate (500 mg), determining optimum pH condition (pH 7.5) and stabilizing (pH 5-8) the complex using various gelling agents. Drug identification was carried out by FTIR and DSC study. Related substances analysis and quantitative determination of drug were carried out on HPLC. Physical parameters like color, smoothness/ grittiness, ease of application, oiliness/greasiness, skin irritation, pH and viscosity of gel were conducted from time to time. Antimicrobial effectiveness test were screened against five selected pathogens. A Franz diffusion cells system was used to determine the release rate profile of the formulation which produces better result comparable to the marketed product (Dalacin&reg; lotion) concludes the topical application of gel useful in acne vulgaris is capable of storage during shelf life for longer period of time without losing its therapeutic effectiveness and maintaining the uniformity.<br /><br />
472-483
67
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF SOLANUM PUBESCENS WILD EXTRACTS GEL ON ALBINO WISTAR RATS
*P. Niyogi, N.J. Raju, P.G. Reddy, B.G. Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was aimed to prepared and characterize gel formulations of ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of Solanum pubescens (Solanaceae) leaves using different polymers as gelling agents in various concentrations and also to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity of gel. For the study, polymers such as Carbopol 940 (0.5%w/v), Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose K4M (2.5%w/v), Sodium Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (3.5%w/v) were selected for preparation of different gel formulations. The prepared gels were evaluated for physical appearance, pH, viscosity, extrudability, spreadability, anti inflammatory activity and also skin irritation to observe toxicity or side effects. At last the stability study performed to confirm the stability of final formulation. It was inferred from the results that gel formulation prepared by HPMC K4M found to be best formulations among the prepared batches.&nbsp; The prepared gels were evaluated for anti inflammatory activity by carrageenan induced paw odema method in wistar rat model using Diclofenac Sodium as the reference anti-inflammatory drug. And HPMC K4M formulation having 7.5%w/v ethyl acetate extract of Solanum pubescens (Solanaceae) leaves in gel shown significant inhibition in carrageenan induced paw odema.
484-490
68
HYPOGLYCEMIC AND HYPOLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITIES OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF GLINUS OPPOSITIFOLIUS
*Ghanshyam Panigrahi, Uma Shankar Mishra, Sujata Mahapatra, Chhayakanta Panda, Gourishyam Pasa and Deepak Ku Hati
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of this study has been to investigate the possible hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of methanolic extract of the plant Glinus oppositifolius. The methanolic extract of Glinus oppositifolius was tested for antihyperglycemic activity in glucose overloaded hyperglycemic rats and hypoglycemic activity in overnight fasted normal rats. The extract was also evaluated for antihyperlipidemic activity in triton-induced hyperlipidemic rats. All the methods were carried out at three dose levels, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively. The results of the study were expressed as mean &plusmn; SEM, n=6 and data was analyzed by using one way analysis of variance test (ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni&#39;s Multiple Comparison Test with 5% level of significance (P&lt;0.05). The methanolic extract of Glinus oppositifolius exhibited significant antihyperglycemic activity (P&lt;0.05) at 200 and 400 mg/ kg but did not produce hypoglycemia in fasted normal rats. It also exhibited a significant reduction (P&lt;0.05) in serum lipid profile like total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipopreotein (VLDL) and increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL) in hyperlipidemic rats as compared to hyperlipidemic control statistically. All the activities were found dose dependent. This study supports the traditional claim and the methanolic extract of this plant possessed significant hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect could be added in traditional preparations for the ailment of complications associated with hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic conditions or as an adjuvant with existing therapy.<br /><br />
491-497
69
INFLUENCE OF NATURAL GUMS FOR EFFECTIVE COLON TARGETING OF METHOTREXATE FOR THE TREATMENT OF COLORECTAL CANCER
*Bharani S. Sogali, Mohammed Yousuff and Shashank Nayak
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Colon-specific drug delivery systems (CDDS) are developed to reduce side effects and to achieve high local drug concentration at the affected site in the colon, hence optimal therapeutic effectiveness and good patient compliance. The aim of the present investigation was to develop colon targeted drug delivery system for methotrexate using guar gum and pectin as a carriers in the treatment of crohn&rsquo;s disease, ulcerative colitis, colorectal cancer, etc. Fast-disintegrating methotrexate core tablets were compression-coated with different ratios of guar gum and pectin. All the formulations were evaluated for the hardness, drug content uniformity, and subjected to in vitro drug release studies with and without rat caecal contents. The in vitro studies concluded that, amongst the different formulations, the F10 containing polymers 50%(guar gum and pectin) in the ratio 1:1 showed better drug release and satisfactory results&nbsp; showing a release of 83.4&plusmn;0.98% of methotrexate after degradation by colonic bacteria at the end of 24 hrs of the dissolution study and 49.4&plusmn;0.9% in simulated colonic fluids. The statistical significance was tested by using Student&rsquo;s t-test and found statistically significant. Optimised F10 formulation was subjected to stability studies at 40&ordm;C&plusmn;2&ordm;C/75%&plusmn;5% RH for 3 months and observed no significant change either in physical appearance, drug content or dissolution pattern. The DSC study showed that methotrexate did not react with polymers (guar gum &amp; pectin) or other excipients used in the study.
498-506
70
THE SCENARIO OF PHARMACY JOURNALS WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON IMPACT FACTOR
*Nimbekar TP, Wanjari BE, Bais YG and Nema
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The Impact Factor of a journal reflects the frequency with which the journal&#39;s articles are cited in the scientific literature. It provides a quantitative tool for ranking, evaluating, categorizing and comparing journals worldwide. Along with the impact factor, another term citation index rates the journal articles. It counts for an individual article, an author and a journal altogether. In our country, ranking, rating of pharmacy and scientific journals is lagging far behind as compared to international journals. The main reasons are comparatively low content value and low economic status in our country. Therefore, we need to increase the research work and publicity of our journals and make them available online which reduces the cost as well.
502-517
71
ANTI-PSYCHOTIC EFFECT OF AQUEOUS LEAVES EXTRACT OF MORUS ALBA IN ANIMAL MODELS
*Girish P. Laddha and G. Vidyasagar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
There are number of patients suffering from of psychiatric condition such as depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, migraine, anti-impulsivity, cognition. Serotonin is the most important neurotransmitters that have been implicated in etiology of number of these psychiatric conditions. Ethyl acetate soluble fraction and insoluble of leaves extracts of morus Alba was carried out on different in-vitro methods.&nbsp; Laboratory animals were given lithium sulphate to causes serotonin blockage from serotonergic neurons. They were treated with different higher concentration clozapine (active comparator) and EASF and EAISF then the psychotic symptoms were monitored to see which group exhibited the best response. The highest dose extract (100mg/kg) was comparable to clozapine in lowering psychotic behavior characterized by head twitches, stereotypy and 5-hydroxytryptophan potention hence both morus Alba and clozapine can be used to treat psychosis induced by amphetamine. The anti-psychotic effect of morus alba leaves may be in dose graded fashion. <br /><br />
513-519
72
EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC POTENTIAL OF SIDA CORDIFOLIA LINN. IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS
*Mehul V. Makwana, Nilesh M. Pandya, Bhavik D. Doshi, Dharmesh N. Darji, Sarav A. Desai and Bhaskar VH
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was aimed to evaluate antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity of an aqueous extract of root of Sida cordifolia Linn. (SCAE) against Triton WR-1339 and High fat diet (HFD) induced hyperlipidemia in experimental animal. Effect of simultaneous administration of SCAE in different doses (200 &amp; 400 mg/kg) by oral route was estimated in Triton WR-1339 and HFD induced hyperlipidemic animals by estimating serum lipid levels of cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), Low density lipoproteins (LDL), High density lipoprotein (HDL) and Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and atherogenic index. Whereas antioxidant activity was carried out by estimating serum levels oxidative marker Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT). From the study, it was revealed that the aqueous extract of Sida cordifolia possesses significant hyperlipidemic activity in acute as well as chronic hyperlipidemic models in the company of promising antioxidant activity. So, it was concluded that aqueous extract of Sida cordifolia possesses potential antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity in experimental animals.
520-525
73
FORMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CEFUROXIME AXETIL FLOATING MICROSPHERES
*Marimuthu S, Nantheeswaran S, Shanmugarathinam A and Purachikody A
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The purpose of this research work was to increase the residence time of drug Cefuroxime axetil by formulating as floating microspheres and to study the effect of formulation variables on microsphere characteristics. Microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation method in which ethyl cellulose used as a release retardant polymer. Nine different formulations were prepared by changing drug to polymer ratio, volume of internal phase, volume of external phase and stirring time. The prepared microspheres were characterized for drug - polymer compatibility by IR, percentage yield, particle size analysis, drug entrapment efficiency, surface morphology by SEM, bulk density, percentage buoyancy, in-vitro release and release kinetic studies. Results of these evaluations showed that particle size in the range of 58.52 to 77.36&micro;m, encapsulation efficiency was found to be 60.7 to 75.7%, Percentage buoyancy of all formulations were in the range of 62.12 to 81.23%.&nbsp; Fourier-Transform Infra Red (FT-IR) studies ensured that no drug - polymer interaction in the formulated microspheres and the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) photograph revealed that microspheres were spherical in nature with rough surface. In- vitro release profile of microspheres were in the range of 73.47 % to 89.78%, at the end of 12 hrs.&nbsp; In release kinetic studies, most of the formulation followed hiquchi release kinetics and follows anomalous transport (non- fickian) mechanism. This entire evaluation confirmed that drug: polymer ratio has significant effect on microsphere characteristics than the other variables used, and also the in-vivo bioavailability of the drug will increase because the buoyancy of microspheres in simulated gastric fluid was satisfactory.
526-533
74
INCIDENCES OF CHEMOTHERAPY-INDUCED NEUTROPENIA AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH TREATMENT OUTCOMES
*Bhavik D. Doshi , Nilesh M. Pandya, Chirag A. Shah, Mehul V. Makwana
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was aimed to evaluate the incidences of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in patients with solid tumors in India. The patients with carcinomas of breast, lung, ovary, colon, head and neck, and liver were divided in two groups. Group 1 was for the patients who experienced grade 0-2 neutropenia and Group 2 was for patients with grade 3-4 neutropenia. Different types of chemotherapeutic agents were administered to the patients according to the routine practice of the physicians. The study revealed that the incidences of grade 3-4 neutropenia were observed in the patients with the first time exposure of the chemotherapeutic agents as well as the age factor also played an important role in the occurrence of neutropenia and febrile neutropenia. The results of this observational study indicate that the proportion of grade 0-2 neutropenia does not significantly (P-value &gt; 0.05) differ from the hypotheses value (i.e. 50%). Thus, we observed that the proportion of incidence of grade 3-4 neutropenia is less as compare to proportion of grade 0-2 neutropenia. Significant no. of patients received pegylated GCSF while a small proportion of patients received non-pegylated GCSF. A few patients were hospitalized due to neutropenia wherein age was observed as an important factor. Due to neutropenia, age of patients, and other comorbidities, chemotherapy dose was delayed and/or reduced.
534-541
75
PHYTOCHEMISTY AND PHARMACOLOGY OF BRYONIA LACINOSA: A REVIEW
*Rasagna Yadavalli, Venu Gopal Y and S.A. Sreenivas
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Many herbal remidies have been employed in various medical systems for treatment and management of different diseases. The plant Bryonia lacinosa has been used in different system of traditional medication for the treatment of diseases and ailments of human beings. Goniothalamin, punicic acid and lipids were previously isolated from the whole plant of Bryonia laciniosa. From leaves a bitter principle, bryonin, has been reported. Arabinoglucomannan, a polysaccharide is present in the fruit which is mainly used for anti-microbial activity. It has been reported that the plant contains anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anticonvulsant, anti microbial and cytotoxic properties. The current study is therefore reviewed to provide requisite phytochemical and pharmacological detail about the plant. <br />
542-547
76
INTRANASAL THERMOREVERSIBLE MUCOADHESIVE GELS: A Review
*Shailja singh, Kanupriya and S.L. Hari kumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Almost 40% of active Pharmaceutical ingredients have low oral bioavailability, high hepatic first-pass metabolism and also less efficient in crossing the blood brain barrier for brain targeting through oral delivery. To overcome this problem the various system such as: nasal spray, gels, emulsions, droplets, suspensions, powders and thermoreversible mucoadhesive gels etc have been studied for nasal delivery. Thermoreversible mucoadhesive gels have promising results in nasal drug delivery. Thermoreversible mucoadhesive gels are those which convert into gel in nasal cavity after administration at body temperature with suitable gel strength, results in enhancement of the residence time in the nasal cavity. These formulations contain thermoreversible polymers (Pluronic F127 or Poloxamer) and mucoadhesive polymers. Thermoreversible polymers are a novel state of matter having both solid and liquid like properties which can be delivered as a fluid and solidifies within the body&rsquo;s microenvironment where the temperature is higher than the sol-gel transition temperature. The formulation has the advantage to prevent the anterior leakage of dosage form, reduce the taste impact, and enhance the nasal bioavailability. Thermoreversible gels are formulated by two methods: simple stirriring and cold method. This abstract gives an overview of Thermoreversible mucoadhesive gels as a promising approach to effectively tackle the problem of low oral bioavailability of drugs.
548-556
77
SCREENING FOR FOLKLORE FOR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY
*Ekta Menghani and Sita kumari sharma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Methanolic extracts of two Indian medicinal plants Citrullus colocynthis, and Citrus medica, were examined for their antimicrobial potential against selected bacteria and fungi. The purpose of screening is to justify and authenticate the use of Indian medicinal plants in ethno medicinal or folklore as traditional treasure to cure various ailments. In present investigations attempts were made to screen the Indian medicinal plants as antimicrobial agent. The extracts were tested against selected test bacteria and fungi through disc diffusion assay where Tetracycline and Mycostatin were used as standard. Indian medicinal plants have a traditional background that they have potentials to use as antimicrobial agents. The results showed that alcoholic extract possess good antimicrobial activity against selected test bacteria and fungi. The present results therefore offer a scientific basis for traditional use of the various extract of Citrullus colocynthis, and Citrus medica.
557-560
78
SPL: KEY REQUIREMENT FOR REGULATORY
*Pawbake Ganesh R, Dhut Mayur O, Sayyed Sadik F and Chaudahari Sanjay R
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In the world of globalization people gets each &amp; every information on internet by the utilization of different website, with the use of daily med website peoples were aware about all information of particular drug product &amp; it is possible with the concept of structure product labelling (SPL). SPL is the key requirement for the regulated market. By keeping in mind the awareness of people in the medicines or drugs, health level seven (HL7) members approved or introduced the concept of SPL that has been adopted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a mechanism for exchanging medication information. SPL is also used by the FDA for the submission of other regulatory information supporting product labeling, specifically for establishment registration and labeler information.<br /><br />
561-563
79
PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL CHARACTERISATION OF DELONIX REGIA - A NOVEL MATRIX FORMING NATURAL POYMER
*Sarojini Sarangapani and Manavalan Rajappan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Herbal medicinal plants are said to be the nature&lsquo;s gift to mankind, since they have been of long age remedies for human diseases. The present study was undertaken to isolate&nbsp;&nbsp; gum&nbsp;&nbsp; from the seeds of Delonix regia linn, to explore its use as a Pharmaceutical exicipient. The isolated gum was evaluated for various Pharmacognostical parameters and physico-chemical characterization. The loss on drying, ash value and microbial load were well within the official limits. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of these extracts revealed the presence of flavonoid, saponins, carbohydrates and tannins in some extracts, The explored result suggest that various bioactive compounds of seed can be used for curing various diseases .This study elucidated the physical, thermal, sorption and functional properties of a gum obtained from the seed of Delonix regia . Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Particle size analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XPRD), Differential scanning colorimetry (DSC), and Fourier transmittance infra red (FTIR), were used to characterize the gum sample which can be used further for the formulation development.<br />
564-573
80
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS OF MONTELUKAST SODIUM
*Mohd Abdul Hadi, V. Lokeswara Babu, Narottam Pal, and A. Srinivasa Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of this study was to develop sustained release tablets of Montelukast sodium by direct compression method using various polymers. The drug excipient mixtures were subjected to pre-formulation studies. The tablets were subjected to physicochemical studies, in- vitro drug release, kinetic studies and stability studies. FTIR and DSC studies shown there was no interaction between drug and polymers. The physicochemical properties of tablets were found within the limits. Montelukast sodium is a leukotriene receptor antagonist used for the maintenance treatment of asthma. The drug release from formulations was extended for a period of 12 hrs. The kinetic treatment showed that the release of drug follows first order models. The optimized formulations were subjected to stability studies and shown there were no significant changes in drug content, physicochemical parameters and release pattern. Results of the present study indicated the suitability of the above mentioned polymers in the preparation of sustained release formulation of Montelukast sodium.<br />
574-582
81
PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SOME THERAPEUTIC MEDICINAL FLOWERS
*U. Thiripura Sundari, S. Rekha and A. Parvathi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of this study was to analyse the phytochemical constituents of the flowers that have tremendous therapeutic potential which could be explored to provide affordable medicines to masses.&nbsp; In this paper,&nbsp; an attempt&nbsp; was made&nbsp; to survey the phytochemicals of the&nbsp; flowers of&nbsp; ten taxa&nbsp; namely&nbsp; Cassia auriculata, L.,&nbsp; Catharanthus roseus,(L.)Don., Hibiscus rosa sinensis, L., Lawsonia inermis, L., Michelia champaca, L.,&nbsp; Mangifera indica, L., Mimusops&nbsp; elengi, L., Moringa oleifera, Lamk., Nelumbo nucifera, Gaertn. and Rosa indica, L. belonging to ten different angiospermic families to know their therapeutically important secondary metabolites. The scope of the floral remedies to cure various human diseases has been discussed. <br />
583-585
82
LIQUISOLID COMPCT: A NOVEL APPROCH TO ENHANCE BIOAVAILABILITY OF POORLY SOLUBLE DRUG
*Sandip Vajir
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Liquisolid technique is a new and promising method that can change the dissolution rate of water insoluble drugs. According to the new formulation method of liquisolid compacts, liquid medications such as solutions or suspensions of water insoluble drugs in suitable non-volatile liquid vehicles can be converted into acceptably flowing and compressible powders by blending with selected powder excipients. It has been speculated that such systems exhibit enhanced release profiles. In this case, even though the drug is in a solid dosage form, it is held within the powder substratein solution or, in a solubilized, almost molecularly dispersed state, which contributes to the enhanced drug dissolution properties. Large scale production of fabricated drug on commercial level.succesful liquisolid tablet is a determination of optimal flowable liquid retention.
586-590
83
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC AND STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF METOPROLOL SUCCINATE AND HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM
*Sohan S. Chitlange, Ramesh D. Bhusal, Monesh B. Nikumbh and Ritesh P. Bhole
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, accurate and reproducible UV-Spectrophotometric and Stability indicating RP-HPLC methods have been developed for simultaneous estimation of Metoprolol Succinate and Hydrochlorothiazide in tablet dosage form. The first UV method was a determination using Absorption corrected for interference method and the second UV method was a determination using Multi-Component mode method at 276 nm and 316.5 nm over the concentration range 20-120 &mu;g/mL and 10-60 &mu;g/mL for Metoprolol Succinate and Hydrochlorothiazide respectively. The RP-HPLC analysis is carried out using 0.05M potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer (pH adjusted to 3 with orthophosphoric acid) and acetonitrile in the ratio of (80:20 % v/v) as the mobile phase and Thermo C18 column (4.6 mm i.d. &times; 250 mm), flow rate 1.1 mL/min, with detection wavelength of 222 nm. Linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 20-120 &mu;g/mL and 10-60 &mu;g/mL for Metoprolol Succinate and Hydrochlorothiazide respectively. Both UV-spectrophotometric and stability indicating RP-HPLC methods were developed and statistically validated as per ICH guidelines.
591-597
84
IN-VITRO AND IN-VIVO CORRELATION OF IMMEDIATE RELEASE ACYCLOVIR TABLET USING WAGNER NELSON METHOD
*Somnath Sakore and Bhaswat Chakraborthy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The purpose of this study was to establish In-Vitro and In-Vivo correlation of immediate release Acyclovir tablets of 800 mg. In vitro and in vivo studies are done on the test product as Acyclovir Tablet USP 800 mg (containing Acyclovir 800 mg) of Cadila Pharmaceuticals Ltd., India versus Zovirax&reg; Tablet 800 mg (containing Acyclovir 800 mg) of GlaxoSmithKline, USA. In vivo studies are done in 36 healthy, adult, human subjects under fasting condition.In vitro dissolution study was done using USP apparatus II at 50 rpm in 0.1N HCL for 45 minutes. The in vitro&ndash;in vivo correlation of Acyclovir shows R-squared value 0.9794 in excel work sheet, which depicts a successful correlation between in vitro and in vivo Characteristic of the drug. In addition, %PE AUC and %PE Cmax was found to be &ndash;4.604 and -11.19 respectively for each formulation. The present study shows a good correlation between in vivo and in vitro PK profiles of the formulation used as the test drug in the study. <br />
598-604
85
EFFECTIVE PATIENT COUNSELING ON DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS
*B. Akshaya Srikanth, G. Praveen Kumar and S. K. Jain
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The role of the healthcare provider should consist of educating patients and their relatives about the drugs and supplements and ensuring the patients without harming themselves by self medications. Pharmacists can assist them in this by playing a role although some dietary supplements are used while in treating diseases and have some scientific research to support their use. There are many dietary supplements like velarian, melatonin used for the treatment of mild to moderate insomnia, omega-3-fatty acid, niacin in reducing the triglycerides levels and lycopene in reducing the HMG-CoA reductase by enhancing the LDL reductase which are safe and more effective. Current supplements and how they should be effectively useful in different condition and counseling to the patient. Information to assist the healthcare providers about the dietary supplements use in different conditions and counseling the patients is also provided.
605-608
86
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF SITAGLIPTIN PHOSPHATE AND SIMVASTATIN IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM
*Ankur Kothari and Sheetal Sharma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple and accurate method of analysis to determine Sitagliptin Phosphate (STG) and Simvastatin(SMV) in combined dosage forms was developed using simultaneous equation method at 267.0nm&nbsp; for Simvastatin and 238.0 nm for Simvastatin in spectra of their solutions in methanol: water(90:10). The calibration curves were linear [correlation coefficient (r) = 0.986 for STG and 0.998 for SMV] in concentration range of 10-50 &mu;g/ml for STG and 5-25 &mu;g/ml for SMV. The method was validated and found to be accurate, precise, and specific. The method was successfully applied to the estimation of STG and SMV in combined dosage tablet formulations.
609-612
87
SCREENING OF PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIPROLIFARATION OF CELL GROWTH LAGENARIA SICERARIA STAND. FRUIT BY PHYTOTOXIC BIOASSAY MODELS
*Sarang Sunil Mahamuni, Suresh Ganpati Killedar and Harinath Nivrutti More
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Many of the Cucurbitaceae plants possess antitumor activity on the traditional use. The present study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer activity of extracts Lagenaria siceraria Standley Fruit. This fruit has the antioxidant activity so the plant may have anticancer activity. Preliminary phytochemical tests of successive extraction of Lagenaria siceraria Standely Fruit powder had performed to find out the different chemical moieties. Preliminary anticancer screening by exposure of different extracts Phytotoxic Bioassay model was carried out to find out the lead extract which shows the promising cell growth inhibitory activity. Cereals Moth seeds&nbsp;&nbsp; were selected for the Phytotoxic Bioassay which shows the phytotoxicity that compared with standard antimitotic drug (colchicine). n-Butanol extract of Lagenaria siceraria Standley Fruit powder shows the promising anticancer activity or cytotoxicity, so that it is selected as a lead extract. Further isolation of active moiety from n-Butanol extract for anticancer activity by chromatographic techniques is completed. <br />
619-624
88
ASSESSMENT OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF TYPHONIUM TRILOBATUM PLANT
*Sourav Kanti Roy, Pratyush Kumar Mishra, Subhangkar Nandy and Viren kumar Patel
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Typhonium trilobatum is a genus in the Araceae family endemic to tropical Asia, the South Pacific, and Australia. Most of the plant parts of Typhonium trilobatum are used in traditional systems of medicine in India. According to Ayurveda, the rhizome is used with effect for treating vomiting, cough, asthma, excessive expectoration, pyogenic sore throat, headache, gastric ulcer, abcess and snake bite. The present work objectives focus on scientific exploration of anti microbial activity of whole plant of Typhonium trilobatum. The test all extracts exhibited prominent antimicrobial activity against all tested organism, where chloroform extract shown the maximum zone of inhibition. The order of antimicrobial activity of all extract are, chloroform &gt; Methanolic &gt;Ethyl acetate against bacteria i.e. Escherichia Coli, P. aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and S. Epidermidis and fungi i.e. Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger.
625-630
89
SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ATORVASTATIN AND TELMISARTAN IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY
*Vineetha Vykuntum, Gajja Vijaykumar and Kudipudi Harinadhbabu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, rapid and accurate reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of Atorvastatin and Telmisartan in tablet dosage form is developed and validated. The chromatographic analysis was performed on a kromasil C18 column (150&times;4.6 mm, 3.5 &micro;m) in isocratic mode, the mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer (adjusted to pH 3.8 with ortho-phosphoric acid) at a ratio of 70:30 v/v, and a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The eluents were monitored at 278 nm. The retention time of Atorvastatin and Telmisartan were found to be 2.804 min and 3.875 min, respectively. The linear ranges were found to be 50-90 &micro;g/mL (r2=0.9992) for Atorvastatin and 12.5-22.5 &micro;g/mL (r2=0.999) for Telmisartan. The proposed method is also found to be accurate, precise and robust. The method could be applied to routine quality control of pharmaceutical formulations containing Atorvastatin and Telmisartan.
631-635
90
ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE ESTIMATION OF LORNOXICAM USING RP-HPLC IN BULK DRUG AND FORMULATION
Kukalakunta Kavya, Gajja Vijaykumar and Kudipudi Harinadhbabu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<p style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt; text-align: justify" class="abst"><font size="2">A simple, specific and sensitive reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of esomeprazole and domperidone from pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method uses ODS C18 column and isocratic elution. The mobile phase composed of methanol: phosphate buffer (pH 4.0) in the ratio of 65:35 v/v was used at a flow rate of 1.0 ml /min. DAD detector was programmed at 230 nm for run time 7 min. All the validation parameters were in acceptable range. The developed method was effectively applied to quantitate amount of esomeprazole and domperidone from tablets. The method was also applied suitably for determining the degradation products of esomeprazole and domperidone.</font></p>
636-639
91
RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF DOMPERIDONE AND ESOMEPRAZOLE IN COMBINED DOSAGE FORM
M. Akiful Haque*, S. Hasan Amrohi, A. Manikanta Kumar, Dibyalochan Mohanty and Prakash V Diwan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif">A simple, specific and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the quantitative determination of </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif">Lornoxicam</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif; letter-spacing: -0.05pt"> </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif">in bulk drug and formulation. </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif">T<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">h</span>e<span style="letter-spacing: 0.25pt"> </span>d<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">e</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.1pt">v</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.1pt">e</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">l</span>o<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">p</span>ed<span style="letter-spacing: 1.1pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">m</span>ethod<span style="letter-spacing: 0.7pt"> </span>co<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">n</span>s<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">i</span>s<span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">ts</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt"> of</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt"> m</span>o<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">bil</span>e p<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">h</span>ase, </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif">ammonium dihydrogen phosphate Buffer: acetonitrile (50:50) with isocratic </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif">pr<span style="letter-spacing: -0.1pt">o</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.1pt">g</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">r</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.15pt">a</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">mm</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">i</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.15pt">n</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.1pt">g</span>, </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif">Hypersil BDS C<sub>18</sub>, 250&times;4.6mm, 5&micro;m</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif"> co<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">l</span>umn<span style="letter-spacing: 1.45pt"> </span>as<span style="letter-spacing: 0.8pt"> </span>s<span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">t</span>ati<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">o</span>n<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">a</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">r</span>y<span style="letter-spacing: 1.7pt"> </span>p<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">h</span>ase<span style="letter-spacing: 1.35pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">wi</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">t</span>h<span style="letter-spacing: 1.05pt"> </span>a<span style="letter-spacing: 0.65pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.15pt">f</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">l</span>ow <span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">r</span>ate<span style="letter-spacing: 0.9pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.15pt">o</span>f<span style="letter-spacing: 0.8pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.15pt">1</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">.</span>0<span style="letter-spacing: 0.9pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">m</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">L/</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">m</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">i</span>n.<span style="letter-spacing: 1.85pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">Pr</span>o<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">p</span>os<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">e</span>d<span style="letter-spacing: 1.7pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">m</span>ethod<span style="letter-spacing: 1.35pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.15pt">w</span>as <span style="letter-spacing: 0.9pt">&nbsp;</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.15pt">f</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.1pt">o</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.15pt">u</span>nd<span style="letter-spacing: 1.15pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">t</span>o<span style="letter-spacing: 0.65pt"> </span>be<span style="letter-spacing: 0.7pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">li</span>n<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">e</span>ar<span style="letter-spacing: 1.15pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">i</span>n<span style="letter-spacing: 0.6pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">t</span>he<span style="letter-spacing: 0.8pt"> </span>co<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">n</span>ce<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">n</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">tr</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.15pt">a</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">t</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">i</span>on<span style="letter-spacing: 2.2pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">r</span>a<span style="letter-spacing: -0.15pt">n</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.1pt">g</span>e<span style="letter-spacing: 1.1pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.15pt">o</span>f </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif">5 &ndash; 30 </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif; letter-spacing: -0.1pt">&micro;g/mL</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif">, <span style="letter-spacing: 0.45pt">the</span> cor<span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">r</span>e<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">l</span>ati<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">o</span>n coefficient <span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">was</span><span style="letter-spacing: 1.75pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.15pt">f</span>o<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">u</span>nd<span style="letter-spacing: 2.1pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">t</span>o<span style="letter-spacing: 1.65pt"> </span>be<span style="letter-spacing: 1.55pt"> </span>0.99<span style="letter-spacing: -0.15pt">9</span>.<span style="letter-spacing: 2.25pt"> </span></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif">System suitability parameters were studied by injecting the standard solution five times and results were well under the acceptance criteria</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif">,<span style="letter-spacing: 0.85pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.1pt">the</span><span style="letter-spacing: 2.35pt"> </span>propos<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">e</span>d&nbsp; <span style="letter-spacing: 0.15pt">&nbsp;</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">m</span>e<span style="letter-spacing: -0.1pt">t</span>h<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">o</span>d is<span style="letter-spacing: 2.05pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.15pt">f</span>o<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">u</span>nd<span style="letter-spacing: 2.55pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">t</span>o<span style="letter-spacing: 2.05pt"> </span>be se<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">n</span>s<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">i</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">t</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">i</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.1pt">v</span>e,<span style="letter-spacing: 1.15pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">r</span>a<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">pi</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.15pt">d</span>,<span style="letter-spacing: 0.9pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">r</span>e<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">p</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">r</span>o<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">d</span>uc<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">i</span>b<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">l</span>e,<span style="letter-spacing: 1.85pt"> </span>a<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">n</span>d<span style="letter-spacing: 1.95pt"> </span>acc<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">u</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">r</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.15pt">a</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">t</span>e<span style="letter-spacing: 0.5pt">.</span></span>
640-644
92
IN-VITRO AND IN-VIVO EVALUATION TESTS FOR FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: A REVIEW
*V. Bhavani Prasad, G.S.N. Koteswara Rao, B. Roja Rani, B. Raj Kumar, B. Sudhakar, P. Uma Devi and K.V. Ramana Murthy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The purpose of writing this review on evaluation tests that can be done for floating drug delivery systems (FDDS) was to amass the literature presenting the evaluation tests of various dosage forms that comes under FDDS. With advancements in the technology various dosage forms were designed in such a way that they reside in the stomach for a prolonged period of time releasing the drug at predetermined levels. Evaluation tests are of prime concern in evaluating the success of dosage form. This article gives a glance of all evaluation tests that can be done for various FDDS.
645-655
93
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF LAMIVUDINE, TENOFOVIR AND EFAVIRENZ BY UPLC
*Sk. Madeesh, Y. Ismail and V. Gunasekaran
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, accurate, rapid and precise isocratic reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of lamivudine, tenofovir and efavirenz in tablets. The chromatographic separation was carried out on a BEH symmetry C18 (50&times;4.6mm, 1.7 &micro;m) column with a mixture of methanol: phosphate buffer pH 3.0 adjusted with o-phosphoric acid (65:35, v/v) as mobile phase; at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The retention times for LAM, TEN and EFA were observed to be 0.432, 0.657, 2.281 min, respectively. Calibration plots were linear (r 2 &gt;0.999) over the concentration range of 10-50 &mu;g/mL for LAM and TEN; and 20-100 &mu;g/mL for EFA. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, specificity, linearity, and sensitivity. The proposed method was successfully used for quantitative analysis of tablets. No interference from any component of pharmaceutical dosage form was observed. Validation studies revealed that method is specific, rapid, reliable, and reproducible. The high recovery and low relative standard deviation confirm the suitability of the method for routine determination of lamivudine, tenofovir and efavirenz in tablets. <br />
656-660
94
A VALIDATED RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF PIOGLITAZONE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
*A. Chandan Reddy, V. Vijayakumar, R. Sandeep Teja, P. Snehith, R. Karthik and G. N. V. Chandra Sekhar Reddy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple and rapid RP-HPLC method was developed for quantification of pioglitazone in tablet dosage form. The chromatography system used a reversed phase C8 column with dual wavelength absorbance detection at 267 nm. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer (pH adjusted to 4.5 using ortho phosphoric acid) in the ratio of 60:40 % v/v at flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The linearity range was found to be 20-60 &micro;g/mL. The method was validated and it was concluded that the developed method was accurate, sensitive, precise, robust and useful for the quality control of pioglitazone in pharmaceutical preparations.
661-665
95
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF OLMESARTAN MEDOXOMIL AND METOPROLOL SUCCINATE IN PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS
*Sohan S. Chitlange*, Reshma A. Talole, Ramesh D. Bhusal and Monesh B. Nikumbh
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Simple, accurate, and reproducible two UV-spectrophotometric methods have been developed for simultaneous estimation of Olmesartan Medoxomil (OLME) and Metoprolol Succinate (METO) in tablet dosage form. The first UV- Spectrophotometric method was a determination using the Area Under Curve method and the second UV method was a determination using the Multi-Component mode method at 256.5 nm and 222.0 nm over the concentration range 5-30 &mu;g/mL and 5-30 &mu;g/mL for OLME and METO respectively. Both UV-spectrophotometric methods were statistically validated and can be used for analysis of combined dose tablet formulation containing OLME and METO.
666-669
96
A VALIDATED HPLC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ANAGRELIDE IN PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS
*S. Ramanjaneyulu, A. Durga Vyshnavi and M. K. Ch. Prasad
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method is developed for the determination of anagrelide in pharmaceutical preparations. Anagrelide was analysed on a reversed-phase column (XTerra symmetry C18, 150&times;4.6 mm, 5&micro;m) with a mobile phase containing acetonitrile and water (pH 3.0, pH adjusted with ortho phosphoric acid) in a ratio of 40:60 v/v at a flow-rate of 1.2 mL/min and PDA detection was performed at 250 nm. The retention time anagrelide was 2.349 min. The linearity range was found to be 5-30 &micro;g/mL. The method was validated and it was concluded that the developed method was accurate, sensitive, precise, rugged and useful for the quality control of anagrelide in pharmaceutical preparations. <br />
670-674
97
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A RP-HPLC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF LEVOCETIRIZINE AND MONTELUKAST IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
*Ch. Harika, Gajja Vijaykumar and Kudipudi Harinadhbabu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, specific and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination levocetirizine and montelukast in pharmaceutical dosage form. The column used was Thermosil C18 (150&times;4.6 mm, 3.5&micro;m) in isocratic mode, with mobile phase containing phosphate buffer-acetonitrile (30:70) adjusted to pH 3.6 using ortho phosphoric acid was used. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/ min and effluents were monitored at 232 nm. The retention times of levocetirizine and montelukast were 2.213 min and 5.674 min, respectively. The linearity for levocetirizine and montelukast were in the range of 50-90 mg/mL and 100-140 mg/mL respectively. The recoveries of levocetirizine and montelukast were found to be 100.31% and 100.37%, respectively. The proposed method was validated and successfully applied to the estimation of levocetirizine and montelukast in combined tablet dosage forms.
675-678
98
AN IMPORTANT APPROACH IN
*Shailendra Shekhar Jadiya
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Now it&rsquo;s proved- Monoclonal antibodies are very important therapeutic tools for cancer. Today, more than 314 Mabs products are in clinical study worldwide. The recent clinical success of anticancer Monoclonal antibodies like Catumaxomab, Brentuximab, Denosumab, Ipilimumab, Tocilizumab are widely used and these are proving of success rate about Monoclonal antibodies for different cancer treatment. Monoclonal antibody therapy has emerged as an important therapeutic modality for cancer. In 1975, Kohler and Milstein discovered how to prepare hybridomas: a new cell type, resulting from the fusion of B-lymphocytes (immune cells of mouse) with a myeloma (cancer) cell. Hybridomas are cells that have been engineered to produce a desired monoclonal antibody in large amounts. Monoclonal antibodies are targeted at specific receptors on cancer cells. Currently, there are more than 20 new monoclonal antibodies- including murine, chimeric, humanized and human that have won FDA approval, including those aimed at transplant rejection, auto-immune disorders, leukemia, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, certain viral infections, and macular degeneration. Past, present &amp; future planning about Mabs are discussed. <br />
679-686
99
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ORAL DISINTEGRATING RELEASE DOSAGE FORM CONTAINING MECLIZINE HCL
*Ramanjaneyulu M, M Shubash Kumar, Ravindar Bairam and P Mahesh Babu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Orally&nbsp; Disintegrating&nbsp; Tablet&nbsp; ( ODT )&nbsp; is&nbsp; a&nbsp; solid&nbsp; unit&nbsp; dosage&nbsp; form&nbsp; containing&nbsp; drugs&nbsp; that disintegrates&nbsp; rapidly&nbsp; and&nbsp; dissolves&nbsp; in&nbsp; the&nbsp; mouth&nbsp; without&nbsp; taking&nbsp; water&nbsp; within&nbsp; 60seconds&nbsp;&nbsp; or&nbsp; less. Hence ,&nbsp; in&nbsp; the&nbsp; present&nbsp; study&nbsp; an&nbsp; attempt&nbsp; made&nbsp; to&nbsp; formulate&nbsp; and evaluate the oral dissolving&nbsp;&nbsp; tablets&nbsp;&nbsp; of&nbsp;&nbsp; Meclizine&nbsp;&nbsp; Hydrochloride&nbsp; of&nbsp; ( 25 mg )&nbsp;&nbsp; oral&nbsp;&nbsp; disintegrating&nbsp; tablets containing&nbsp; different&nbsp; concentration&nbsp; of&nbsp; excipients&nbsp; used&nbsp; for&nbsp; anti vertigo and&nbsp; motion sickness. Microcrystalline&nbsp; cellulose&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; selected&nbsp;&nbsp; as&nbsp; diluents ,&nbsp; crosscarmellose&nbsp; sodium ,&nbsp; crosspovidone were&nbsp; selected&nbsp; as&nbsp; super&nbsp; disintetegrants. Magnesium stearate was used as a lubricant. Direct compression method was used to formulate the tablets.&nbsp; All&nbsp; the&nbsp; formulations&nbsp; shown&nbsp; the acceptable&nbsp; flow&nbsp; properties&nbsp; &amp;&nbsp; pre-compression&nbsp; parameters&nbsp; like&nbsp;&nbsp; bulk&nbsp; density,&nbsp; tap&nbsp; density, angle&nbsp; of&nbsp; repose. The&nbsp; post&nbsp; compression&nbsp; parameters&nbsp; like&nbsp; hardness,&nbsp; friability,&nbsp; disintegration time,&nbsp; wetting&nbsp; time,&nbsp; values&nbsp; found&nbsp; to&nbsp; be&nbsp; within&nbsp;&nbsp; I.P. limits.&nbsp; The&nbsp; percentage content&nbsp; of&nbsp;&nbsp; all&nbsp; tablets found&nbsp; to&nbsp; be&nbsp; between&nbsp; 97.6&nbsp; to&nbsp; 99.8&nbsp; of&nbsp; meclizine&nbsp; hydrochloride&nbsp; which&nbsp; is within&nbsp; the&nbsp; limit.
717-726
100
HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ENICOSTEMMA AXILLARE (LAM) Raynal IN LANTANA CAMARA LINN
*M. Surendra Kumar, Lalitha M, Astalakshmi N and G BABU
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Hepatotoxicity is a common condition of liver damage due to chemical entities or any other substances. The present study aims to explore the hepatoprotective activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of aerial parts of Enicostemma axillare (Lam.) Raynal against Lantana camara Linn induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Silymarin (100mg/kg) is used as a reference standard. The aqueous and alcoholic extracts of aerial parts of Enicostemma axillare at about the doses of 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg are used for the study. Both aqueous and alcoholic extracts have shown very significant hepatoprotection against Lantana camara induced hepatotoxicity in male wistar rats by reducing Serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase (SGOT), Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase (SGPT) levels and increasing the serum total albumin and protein levels. However the alcoholic extract is found to be more potent than aqueous extract at about the dose of 400 mg/kg. Thus we can claim that, the drug Enicostemma axillare is a hepatoprotective agent suitable for veterinary category, since Lantana camara is a common hepatotoxic agent among the veterinary categories.
727-730
101
INTERESTING CASE STUDY OF INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGE IN AN INFANT
*Himani Asani, S. Parimalakrishnan, Guru Prasad Mohanta, S.Ramesh
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Intracranial hemorrhage is bleeding within the skull cavity (cranium) that usually progresses rapidly and often results in permanent brain damage and death. The incidence of intra cranial hemorrhage in infants is rare. Here we are presenting a rare case of intracranial hemorrhage in which infant developed fever, seizures, vomiting after 45 days of immunization. A 2 months old male infant was brought to the pediatric casualty with chief complaints of 6 episodes of seizures for one night, fever for last 4 days and vomiting immediately after breast feeding since 2 days. Baby was apparently normal before the baby was brought for immunization (DT, OPV), the baby developed the above complaints after the immunization. In the past there were also similar complaints at time of birth. Baby was on anticonvulsant drug, phenobarbital, since seizure occurrence was found with the help of electroencephalogram. The CT scan report have showed, left front to back subdural hygroma with left frontal, temporal, parietal intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). There was a shift in the midline, which was toward right side of the brain with the association of inter hemispherical bleed along hygroma. Treatment was initiated with anticonvulsant, phenobarbital, antibiotics cefotaxime and amikacin and antipyretic paracetamol and loop diuretic, furosemide, was also administered with peripheral vasodilator and cerebral activator, nimodipine. We conclude that (1) In all difficult deliveries, the baby should be screened for intracranial hemorrhage by doing neurosonogram (2) early recognition of intra cranial hemorrhage is of paramount importance for initiating appropriate management to prevent complications and (3) early diagnosis and prompt therapy will lead to complete recovery. <br />
737-739
102
ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC OF RUELLIA TUBEROSA LINN IN TRITON INDUCED HYPERLIPIDEMIC RATS
*Krishna Chaitanya B, Ravindra Babu S, Jayasree Vardhan, Alekhya Ravella, Diana Vivian Atigari, Jaji Sree
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Hyperlipidemia is the greatest risk factor of coronary heart disease. The present study was designed to investigate the antihyperlipidemic activity of Ruellia tuberosa ethanolic extract (RTEE 2012) in Triton X-100 induced Hyperlipidemic rats. RTEE 2012 was administered at a dose of 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg, (p.o) to Triton induced Hyperlipidemic rats. Atorvastatin is used as reference standard. The statistical analyses were carried out using one way ANOVA. RTEE 2012 show a significant decrease in the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, VLDL and significant increase in the level of serum HDL with increase in dose of RTEE 2012 against Triton induced hyperlipidemic rats. Therefore it effectively suppressed the Triton induced hyperlipidemia in rats, suggesting the potential protective role in Coronary heart disease.&nbsp; <br />
740-745
103
AN OVERVIEW ON: BIOREMEDEATION
*N. T. Rangari, T. M. Kalyankar, P. K. Puranik, S. M. Kalmegh and S. R. Chaudhari
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Bioremediation is the transformation or degradation of contaminants into non-hazardous or less hazardous chemicals. This technology includes biostimulation (stimulating viable native microbial population), bioaugmentation (artificial introduction of viable population), bioaccumulation (live cells), biosorption (dead microbial biomass), phytoremediation (plants) and rhizoremediation (plant and microbe interaction). Bioremediation is an option that offers the possibility to destroy or render harmless various contaminants using natural biological activity. As such, it uses relatively low-cost, low-technology techniques, which generally have a high public acceptance and can often be carried out on site.
746-757
104
Study of in Vitro Anticataract Activity of Tamarindus indica Linn on Isolated Goat Lenses
*Srikanth Merugu, Veeresh B, Deepa Rekulapally and Swetha T
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The antioxidant such as Tamarindus indica Linn. was subjected to prevent cataract formation in vitro on galactose induced cataract model. Goat lenses were incubated in artificial aqueous humor containing 55mM galactose (cataractogenesis) and Tamarindus indica Linn. extract in different concentrations kept at room temperature for 72 h. Biochemical parameters were studied in the lens homogenate, which are malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid peroxidase and proteins. Galactose-induced opacification of goat lens began 8-10 hrs after incubation and was complete in 72-80 h. Cataractous lenses showed higher MDA (P&lt;0.001), and water-soluble protein content. Lenses treated with Tamarindus indica Linn.extract in concentrations of 50, 75&micro;g/ml showed higher protein (total proteins) content and prevented formation and progress of cataract by galactose, as evidenced by biochemical parameters.
758-763
105
QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF FLURBIPROFEN IN BOTH BULK AND FORMULATIONS USING ACID-BASE TITRATION
*Kiran Aarelly, Shilpa Allabotharam, Manish Kumar Thimmaraju and Raghunandan Nerella
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Flurbiprofen, a propionic acid derivative, is a non steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAIA) with antipyretic and analgesic activity. Oral formulations of flurbiprofen may be used for the symptomatic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and anklylosing spondylitis. Flurbiprofen may also be used topically prior to ocular surgery to prevent or reduce intra-operative miosis. In the present study, simple titrimetric method was developed. Respective quantities of Flurbiprofen were taken in aqueous methanol titrated against 0.1N sodium hydroxide acid using phenolphthalein as an indicators for acid-base titration. This method were found to be sensitive and inexpensive, do not require any sample processing steps and can be utilized for estimation of flurbiprofen in bulk and formulations. <br />
764-767
106
VESOSOMAL DRUG DELIVERY IN LIPOSOMES: A REVIEW
*Bhawna Khurana, Ritesh Bajaj, Lohit Girotra
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Liposomal drug delivery can be put forth as the cynosure for the release kinetics of lipophillic drugs that require compartmental models in its therapeutics and triggers. The localization of the drug at the site of action, rate of achieving the therapeutic index and Circulation lifetime are the key parameters for a liposome. Lately, their arises a need for a multi-compartment structure consisting of drug-loaded liposomes encapsulated within another bilayer, is a promising drug carrier with better retention and stability. A vesosome contemplates a large lipid bilayer enclosing many smaller liposomes, serving as a support for the customization of separate environments for multiple therapeutics and release triggers, highlighting the vesosomes potential as a single site, single dose, and multiple component drug treatment. The permeation rate, membrane charge, specific recognition particles, steric stabilizers, membrane rigidity, and phase transition temperatures all play a role in optimization of vesicles for particular delivery applications. The vesosomes are optimized on the basis of phase behavior exhibited by homogeneous lipid mixtures. A variety of microscopy techniques, including freeze-fracture and cryo-transmission electron microscopy as well as fluorescence and confocal microscopy are used for characterization of these lipophillic, eukaryotic cell like species. The present paper tries to tap another vesicular drug delivery comport such that release and bioavailability of liposomes is taken to another level.&nbsp; <br />
768-776
107
PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF SOLID DISPERSIONS OF NIMESULIDE
*Swathi Gunturu and Divya Amaravadi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Nimesulide is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Here, the present study was planned to prepare and evaluate the solid dispersions of Nimesulide. Solid dispersions of Nimesulide were prepared by using various hydrophilic carriers like PVP K-40, PEG 4000, PEG-6000 in various ratios by solvent evaporation method. The solubility of Nimesulide in different solvents; water, acetone and ethanol was enhanced in the form of solid dispersions. The prepared solid dispersions were subjected to solubility studies (in water, 0.1 N HCL and phosphate buffer pH 7.4. Stability studies were carried out at 40&plusmn;2&deg; C and at 75&plusmn;5 % RH. The phosphate buffer pH 7 Showed highest solubility for the drug. The cumulative amount of drug release of Nimesulide: PVP K-40 was 97.06 %; Nimesulide: PEG-4000 was 97.42%; Nimesulide: PEG -6000 was 97.46% respectively. Therefore it can be concluded that dissolution rate of poorly soluble drug (Nimesulide) can be significantly enhanced by formulating them into solid dispersions
777-785
108
TRADITIONAL UNDERUTILIZED GREEN LEAFY VEGETABLES AND ITS CURATIVE PROPERTIES
*Sudha K and S.K. Mathanghi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Any discussion on health and wellness is not complete without a discussion on the uses of greens food in our daily diet plan. Studies have shown that a fiber rich diet ensures our overall health. Nutritional value of greens (Keerai) is twenty times more than in other vegetables. Dark green leafy vegetables are calorie for calorie, probably the most concentrated source of nutrition of any food. They are a rich source of minerals (including iron, calcium, potassium, and magnesium) and vitamins, including K, C, E, and many of the B complex vitamins. They also provide a variety of phytonutrients including beta-carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin, which protect our cells from damage also helps in alleviating the age-related problems. The range of health benefits of the greens is so vast that it is not easy to consolidate them in a single article like the present one. However, we can cite here a few varieties of greens and their respective health benefits.
786-793
109
THERAPEUTIC APPROACHES FOR THE TREATMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS
*Radhika Bhaskar, Rahul Bhaskar, Mahendra K. Sagar and Vipin Saini
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Diabetes, an epidemic, has become a point of concern as far as healthcare crisis are concerned in developing and developed countries. The therapy against type 2 diabetes is aimed to get control over metabolism of glucose with due consideration on safety point also. The target of therapy is to maintain the HbA1c value &lt; 6.5% at the early stages of the disease and &lt; 7.5% at advanced stages or when patient is at a risk of hypoglycemia. The treatment is categorized in three steps. The first step starts at early stages of the disease, when hyperglycemia is not too high and value of HbA1c lies between 6.5%-8.5%. Though several oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA) are available, metformin is considered as drug of choice. Other alternatives are recommended only if patient is not able to tolerate metformin or it is contraindicated with other components. However if metformin fails to control the situation and level of hyperglycemia reaches as high as HbA1c &gt; 8.5%, one should move to second step which includes addition of a second drug with a synergistic action. Out of various available options of OHA, the dose and combination individualization are supposed to be carried out. The condition, if not under control, even after step 2, this is a call for the third step, which incorporates either oral triple therapy or introduction of basal insulin (condition apply that patient is not insulin- resistant).
794-800
110
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF MILNACIPRAN HCL IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS
*Mubarakunnisa Md, Prameela Rani A and Seelam Harika
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new simple isocratic RP-HPLC method was developed for the determination of milnacipran in bulk drug and in its capsules formulations. The mobile phase selected was methanol: acetonitrile:0.1% O-phosphoric acid in the ratio of 55:35:10%(v/v) and Zodiac C18 column with dimensions (250X4.6mm, 5&micro;)was used as stationary phase column temperature is ambient throughout the method. The flow rate and wave length observed were 1.0 mL/min and 220nm, respectively. The method was validated and it was concluded that the developed method was accurate, sensitive, precise, robust, and useful for the quality control of milnacipran in bulk drug and pharmaceutical preparations (capsules).
801-805
111
ISOLATION OF β-SITOSTEROL FROM ETHANOL EXTRACT OF AERIAL PARTS OF BAUHINIA PURPUREA AND EVALUATION FOR ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY
*N. Neelima and M. Sudhakar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Bauhinia purpurea is a flowering plant. General phytochemical screening of the aerial parts of Bauhinia purpurea revealed the presence of steroids, terpenes, phenolic compounds, saponins, fatty acids, alkaloids. The aim of this study is to identify and characterize the bioactive principle from the aerial parts of the plant. It has wide folk medicinal use. For isolation of the compound, the dried aerial parts powder of Bauhinia purpurea was subjected to hot extraction with ethanol; this extract was subjected to chromatography. Isolated compound were purified by chloroform. The isolation and purification afforded white crystalline powder which was subjected to physical, chemical and spectral identification by IR, 1H&#8208;NMR, 13C&#8208;NMR and GC&#8208;MS. The compound was concluded as &beta;&#8208;sitosterol. In the present study after the isolation, the ethanol extract of unripe pods and leaves of Bauhinia purpurea was evaluated for antihyperlipidemic activity in cholesterol high fat diet (CHFD) induced hyperlipidemia. Hyperlipidemia was induced by giving high cholesterol diet in standard rat chow diet for thirty days. The groups of rats selected for the study were treated with atorvastatin, ethanol extract of unripe pods and ethanol extract of leaves daily for the whole period. Changes in body weight and the analysis of serum lipids were carried out at the end of the study. There was a marked decrease in body weight, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels. Also there was a significant increase in high density lipoprotein levels after the treatment with Bauhinia purpurea extracts. Ethanol extract of leaves showed a marked effect over body weight reduction and also had a significant effect on the lipoprotein profile. There is a lowered atherogenic index, TC: HDL-c and LDL: HDL-c ratios in the extract treated groups. The present work indicated that Bauhinia purpurea extracts significantly suppressed the CHFD induced hyperlipidemia in rats, suggesting the antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic potential of the extracts. Further studies are needed to characterize the phytoconstituents responsible for the study.
806-811
112
HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF TABERNAEMONTANA DIVARICATA LINN. AGAINST PARACETAMOL INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS
*V. Umarani and V. Chitra
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata Linn.against paracetamol induced liver damage in rats. The hydroalcoholic extract of Tabernamontana divaricata Linn. (600mg/kg) was administered orally to the animals with hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol (3gm/kg). Silymarin (25mg/kg) was given as reference standard. All the test drugs were administered orally by suspending in 0.5% Carboxy methyl cellulose solution. The plant extract was effective in protecting the liver against the injury induced by paracetamol in rats. This was evident from significant reduction in serum enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin. It was concluded from the result that the hydroalcoholic extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata possesses hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
812-814
113
RP-HPLC DETERMINATION OF RIFAXIMIN IN BULK DRUG AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS
*K. Nageswara Rao, S. Ganapaty and A. Lakshmana Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, rapid, sensitive, accurate and precise HPLC method has been developed and validated for the estimation of Rifaximin in bulk and its pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method was carried out using Chromosil Symmetry C18 (150 x 4.6 mm I.D., 5 &#61549;m particle size) column and mobile phase comprised of phosphate buffer pH 4.0 and acetonitrile in proportion of ratio 40:60 v/v and degassed in ultrasonic water bath. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the detection wavelength was at 292 nm. The linearity was observed in the range of 10-60 &micro;g/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.999. The retention time of Rifaximin was 2.963 min. The method was validated as per the ICH guidelines for its linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and by performing recovery studies. The percentage recovery of the drug Rifaximin was 100.6% to 101.4% from the tablet formulation. The proposed method is suitable for the routine quality control analysis for the estimation of Rifaximin in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. <br />
7-13
114
ASSESSMENT OF MEDICATION ERRORS IN AMONG PATIENTS VISITING COMMUNITY PHARMACIES IN RURAL AREAS OFCHIDAMBARAM, TAMILNADU AT SOUTH INDIA: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY
*Akram Ahmad, Isha Patel, S. Parimalakrishnan, G.P. Mohanta, Anoop Parchuri and R. Balkrishnan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Medication errors are important problems in hospitalized and outpatients department. Medication errors are inevitable and are affected by numerous human factors. Nevertheless, the epidemiological data about medication errors in outpatients in India is still limited. Objectives: This study was purposed to know the occurrence of medication errors including prescribing error, pharmaceutical error and dispensing error and the occurrence of the most type happened in these errors in outpatient settings. The present study is a prospective and study subjects were selected from community based ambulatory pharmacies. The study was carried over one month during January 2012. 250 prescriptions were collected and 212 of them were selected for the further analysis. We observed the prescription of 202 outpatients (of 212, 10 were excluded). About 81% of prescriptions were carrying with variety of errors. Among 202 prescriptions, 95.54 % were with prescribing errors, 9.9 % were with pharmaceutical errors and 7.91% were with dispensing errors. The most type of prescribing error was incomplete prescription orders and it was the most common stage of errors (95.54%). The dosing errors were including over dose and under dose of drugs, while dispensing errors includes improper drug preparation and incomplete or no drug information. Medication errors are still common problem in outpatients in Chidambaram, India. Pharmacists needed to prevent and overcome the medication errors.
53-58
115
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF GASTRORETENTIVE FLOATING TABLETS OF FAMOTIDINE
*Brajendra singh Rajpoot
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The purpose of this investigation was to prepare a gastro retentive drug delivery system of famotidine. Floating tablets of famotidine were prepared by using two different grades of HPMCK4M and HPMCK100M by effervescent technique; these HPMCK have gel-forming properties. The floating tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content. All prepared tablet showed good in vitro buoyancy.
73-76
116
LEUCAS CEPHALOTES (ROTH) SPRENG: REVIEW AT A GLANCE
*Reena Bhoria and Sushma Kainsa
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Leucas cephalotes is an annual herb growing widely in India. It is used as anti-filarial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hepato-protective, antimicrobial &amp; anti-diabetic .The Leucas cephalotes (Roth) Spreng whole herb contains new Labdane, Nor Labdane &amp; Abietone-type, Diterpenes named Leucasdins A (1), B (2), C (3), five sterols and eight flavones. The review summaries phytochemical and pharmacological investigations carried out on this plant.
77-81
117
PREPARATION OF BIODEGRADABLE MICROSPHERES BY SPRAY DRYING METHOD FOR ISONIAZID PULMONARY DELIVERY
*Aliasgar J. Kundawala, Vishnu A. Patel, Harsha V. Patel and Dhaglaram Choudhary
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of the present study was to prepare microspheres containing Isoniazid, using Chitosan, Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) as carrier polymers to achieve aerodynamic properties with sustainable drug release in lungs. The microspheres were evaluated for morphological characterization, particle size analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry and in-vitro deposition studies. The microspheres were spherical shaped with slight rough surface and appeared as aggregated particles, however, HPMC-microspheres found to have collapsed surface. The in vitro drug deposition revealed that mass median aerodynamic diameter of microspheres was in the range of 2.53 to 3.01&mu;m with fine particle fraction between 44-66%. All the formulation batches showed acceptable drug loading (&gt; 90%), powder flow properties having Carr&rsquo;s index in the range of 30 to 44 %. Microspheres showed sustained drug release over period of more than 8 hours except HPC-microspheres. The microspheres prepared with spray drying technique showed promising aerosol properties with sustained drug release properties required for effective pulmonary administration of isoniazid.
82-90
118
METHODS TO STUDY ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MEDICINAL PLANTS
*Susmita Mahapatra, Yugal Kishore Mohanta, Sujogya Kumar Panda
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Antioxidant properties have been credited to medicinal plants because plants have to counteract themselves from stress caused by oxygen. Plants have no side effects and provide protection against free radicals, thus prevent our body from oxidative damage. As a result, it is very much necessary to screen medicinal plants for their antioxidant properties. There are several in vitro assays are reported for measurement of antioxidant properties. Results comparability is largely dependent on the techniques employed in the investigations and conclusive results can only be obtained if methods are standardized and worldwide. In the light of the fact, the present review is designed for the simplicity and feasibility of the authors to use the appropriate methods based on the availability of the instruments, so as to reduce the time consumption. This review offers an idea behind the mechanism involved in each test assay. At the same time it also provide information on the most common methods used in the present day to study antioxidant activity with their advantages and comparison of different standards used by several authors.
91-97
119
STUDIES RELATED TO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF AMINOBENZYLATED MANNICH BASES OF UREA
*Chaluvaraju KC and Ishwar bhat K
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
An elegant synthesis of newer aminobenzylated mannich bases (6a to 6j) is described in the present study. These were synthesized by reacting aromatic aldehydes, cyclic secondary amines and a reagent with active hydrogen atom such as Urea in the presence of hydrochloric acid. The constituents of the newly synthesized compounds have been established on the basis of their physical and spectral data. All the newly obtained compounds have been screened for invitro antimicrobial activity against bacterial strains Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtillis, Escherichia coli and fungal strains Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger.
98-102
120
VALIDATED CHROMATOGRAPHICAL METHODS FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUGS IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
*Delhiraj N and Anbazhagan S
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Two new, rapid, precise, accurate and specific chromatographic methods for the simultaneous determination of Olmesartan medoxomil,Amlodipine besylate and Hydrochlorothiazide in combined pharmaceutical dosage forms. The first method based on reverse phase liquid chromatography by using Qualisil BDS C18 column (250 mm X 4.6 i.d., 5 &mu;m). Mobile phase consists of 1.0 ml of triethylamine in one litre water and the pH was adjusted to 2.5 with orthophosphoric acid and Acetonitrile (60:40) with a flow rate of 1ml/min, with a detection wavelength of 231nm.The second method involved silica gel 60F254 high performance thin layer chromatography and densitometric detection at 231 nm using chloroform: methanol (85:15) as the mobile phase.<br />
103-103
121
DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CONTROLLED RELEASE SPHERICAL AGGLOMERATES BY USING THE QUASI-EMULSION SOLVENT DIFFUSION METHOD
*Anuradha A. Ranpise, Pratiksha M. Kadam, Shilpa P. Chaudhari, Atul A. Phatak
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Aspirin is moisture sensitive drug and having poor flowability and compressibility, it is necessary to increase the flowability and compressibility of Aspirin. Spherical crystallization of aspirin was done by quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method (QESD). 32 factorial design were used to study the effect of agitation speed and amount of polymer in development of spherical agglomerates. Agglomerates were evaluated for micromeritics properties, drug release, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, Karl Fischer titration, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction. Flowability and compressibility properties of agglomerates were good enough to adopt direct compression technology. In vitro drug release of optimized formulation shows 98% .X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis reveal the conversion of crystalline drug to amorphous. FTIR of agglomerates does not shown any extra peaks as compared to pure drug. Controlled release aspirin agglomerates were prepared successfully by QESD method. The method was simple, inexpensive and reproducible. <br />
108-115
122
A RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE ESTIMATION OF DIHYDRALAZINE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
*Saroj Kumar Raul, B.V.V Ravi kumar, Ajaya Kumar Pattnaik, Nagireddy Neelakanta Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, selective, linear, precise and accurate RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for rapid assay of Dihydralazine in pharmaceutical dosage form. Isocratic elution at a flow rate of 0.8 mL min -1 was employed on a Hypersil C18 column at 40oC. The mobile phase consisted of phosphate buffer: acetonitrile 98:2 (v/v) and the detection wavelength was at 305 nm. Linearity was observed in concentration range of 25-150 &mu;g/mL. The retention time for Dihydralazine was 2.75 min. The method was validated as per the ICH guidelines. The proposed method can be successfully applied for the estimation of Dihydralazine in pharmaceutical dosage forms.
116-121
123
FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT, CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF LIQUISOLID TABLET CONTAINING PIOGLITAZONE HCL
*K. J. Gandhi, A. R. Sawant, S. V. Nagpure, S. V. Deshmane, K .R. Biyani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of present study was to improve the solubility of pioglitazone HCl a practically insoluble antidiabetic drug by using liquisolid technique. The in vitro release pattern of liquisolid tablets and directly compressed tablets were studied using USP-II apparatus. Different Liquisolid tablets were prepared using a mathematical model to calculate the required quantities of powder and liquid ingredients to produce acceptably flowable and compressible admixture. Avicel PH 102, Aerosil 200 and Sodium starch glycolate were employed as carrier, coating material and disintegrant respectively. The drug release rates of Liquisolid tablets were distinctly higher as compared to directly compressed tablets, which show significant benefit of Liquisolid tablets in increasing wetting properties and surface area of drug available for dissolution. The optimized formulation showed the higher drug release during ex-vivo and in-vivo study against conventional and marketed tablet preparation. The DSC and FT-IR studies conforms the no significant interaction between the drug and excipients used in Liquisolid tablets. From this study it concludes that the Liquisolid technique is a promising alternative and best suitable method for enhancing solubility of pioglitazone HCl.
122-130
124
PATTERN OF THERAPEUTIC INTERVENTIONS MADE BY CLINICAL PHARMACIST IN A SOUTH INDIAN HOSPITAL
*Mohammed Saji S, Raslif Khan S and Siraj Sundaran
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
70% of medication errors occurring in the hospitals are preventable. The study was aimed to document, classify and examine interventions and examine reasons as to why pharmacists initiate changes in drug therapy and the outcomes of interventions, also examine the acceptability of interventions to analyze if intervention study can be a reliable learning process and to identify the areas of weakness in case of ineffective interventions. Interventions were broadly classified into Reactive interventions and Passive interventions. The study was conducted for six months. A total of 470 interventions were recorded in this study. Out of these 470 interventions, 104 were reactive interventions and 366 were passive interventions. Out of 92 outcome assessed interventions, the outcomes were beneficial in (91.30%) and had no effect in (8.70%). Active involvement of clinical pharmacists in the wards helps physicians in taking better therapeutic decisions which highlights areas where clinical pharmacists could prove their skill and knowledge to achieve better patient outcomes. <br />
131-135
125
NEW STABILITY INDICATING HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF LAMIVUDINE, TENOFOVIR DF AND NEVIRAPINE IN EXTENDED RELEASE TABLETS
*Lanka A. Rama Prasad, J.V.L.N.S. Rao, Srinivasu Pamidi, J. Vara Prasad and J. Hemalatha
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
New stability-indicating reverse phase LC method developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Lamivudine, Tenofovir DF and Nevirapine in extended release tablet dosage form.&nbsp; Tenofovir and Lamivudine are formulated into immediate release and Nevirapine into extended relase. The chromatographic conditions were optimized using an impurity-spiked solution and the samples generated from forced degradation studies. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a core shell technology C18 stationary phase. The method employed a linear gradient elution and the detection wavlength was set at 260 nm. The mobile phases consists of buffer and acetonitrile delivered at a flow rate of 0.7 mL&bull;min&ndash;1. Proposed method was extensively validated as per ICH guidelines. Regression analysis shows an r value (correlation coefficient) of greater than 0.999 for individual active drug substances. The samples were assayed against a qualified reference standard and the mass balance was found to be close to 98.3%.
136-144
126
SYNTHESIS OF 9-BROMO-N-SUBSTITUTED- 6H- INDOLO [2, 3-b] QUINOXALINE-3-SULFONAMIDE DERIVATIVES CONTAINING QUINOXALINE MOIETY AS PROSPECTIVE ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS
*Sandeep Talari, Govindarajan. R, Divya Karunakaram, Srikanth Jupudi and Udhayavani.S
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
O-phenylene diamine is reacted with 5-bromo Isatin and the resultant compound is reacted with various aromatic and aliphatic amines to form the 9-bromo-N-substituted- 6H- indolo [2,3-b] quinoxaline-3-sulfonamide derivatives of Quinoxaline (QXN 1 to QXN 12). All the compounds were structurally elucidated with physical and analytical methods. All the compounds were evaluated with anti-microbial activity against a variety of bacterial strains (both Gram +ve and Gram &ndash;ve) and fungal strains and some of these compounds have shown significant antibacterial and antifungal activities. <br />
145-151
127
FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT OF VENLAFAXINE HYDROCHLORIDE EXTENDED RELEASE PELLETS BY EXTRUSION SPHERONIZATION METHOD
*Omprakash Bagdiya, Ajay Kumar Sav and Purnima Dhanraj Amin
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Venlafaxine hydrochloride is an antidepressant drug used to treat various mental disorders. Single layer or double layer coating generally used method to prepare extended release pellets of Venlafaxine hydrochloride. In current work, extended release pellets of Venlafaxine was prepared by extrusion spheronization method using combination of hydrophobic low melting wax and hydrophilic polymers as release retarding agent. This method avoids the process of layering or film coating. The optimized capsule formulation containing Venlafaxine hydrochloride pellets (F10) was evaluated for physical properties like size distribution, surface morphology and Invitro drug release. The developed capsule formulation was found to be complying with the marketed formulation Venlor XR &reg; (37.5 mg) with respect to dissolution Invitro drug release profile and physical property. SEM study showed that formulation comprised of sphere pellets of uniform size. Dissolution data was found to be best fitted in Higuchi equation revealed that drug releases by diffusion mechanism. The optimized batch (F10) was found to be stable for period of stability study. <br />
152-159
128
A TYPICAL REVIEW ON PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS OF GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROPHOTOMETRY
*Gattu Madhava Prathap,B. Krishnamoorthy, M. Muthukumaran and Amreen Nishat
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present review article to discuss briefly about the construction and working mechanism of the hyphenated technique GC-MS. Here the importance of the hyphenated technique in the drug resolution was determined. GC with low resolution electron ionization (EI)-MS was used, together with confirmation with chemical standards, for identification work. The method was successfully applied in many fields like forensic department&nbsp;&nbsp; and environmental analysis. It is also used in the anti-doping analysis. The combines the features of gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to identify different substances within a test sample. Applications of GC - MS include drug detection, fire investigation, environmental analysis, explosives investigation, and identification of unknown samples. GC - MS has been widely heralded as a &quot;gold standard&quot; for forensic substance identification because it i s used to perform a specific test.
160-165
129
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A RP-HPLC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE AND CANDESARTAN CILEXETIL IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
*Ananda Rao Bonthala and T.A.D. Surya Kumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, specific and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of hydrochlorothiazide and candesartan cilexetil in pharmaceutical dosage form. The column used was Zorbax C8 (150&times;4.6 mm, 3.5&micro;m) in isocratic mode, with mobile phase containing phosphate buffer-methanol (30:70) adjusted to pH 3.0 using ortho phosphoric acid was used. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/ min and effluents were monitored at 230 nm. The retention times of hydrochlorothiazide and candesartan cilexetil were 2.170 min and 7.280 min, respectively. The linearity for Hydrochlorothiazide and Candesartan cilexetil were in the range of 25-125 mg/mL and 16-80 mg/mL respectively. The recoveries of Hydrochlorothiazide and Candesartan- cilexetil were found to be 101.5% and 100.9%, respectively. The proposed method was validated and successfully applied to the estimation of Hydrochlorothiazide and Candesartan cilexetil in combined tablet dosage forms.
166-169
130
SOLID DISPERSION–AN APPROACH TO ENHANCE THE DISSOLUTION RATE OF AMLODIPINE
*R. B. Desi Reddy, P. Sivanarayana, T. Madhu Mounica, N. Prathibha, G. Sandhya and P. Alekhya
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Solid dispersion refers to the dispersion of one or more active ingredients in an inert carrier in a solid state, frequently prepared by the melting method, solvent method, or fusion solvent method. The oral bioavailability of poorly water soluble drug remains as the most challenging aspects of drug development. Solid dispersion approach is to reduce particle size, therefore increases the dissolution rate and absorption of drugs. Amlodipine is poorly soluble drug. The solubility of this drug is enhanced by preparing the solid dispersions of amlodipine, with hydrophilic polymers like PEG4000, in different ratios (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5 and 1:6). The amount of drug released is measured by UV spectroscopy at the wavelength of 238nm using methanol as blank.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <br />
170-172
131
NEW ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE ESTIMATION OF GEMFIBROZIL IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION BY RP-HPLC
*A. Sushma, K. Harinadha Babu and G. Vijay Kumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, specific and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the determination Gemfibrozil in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. The column used was Agilent Zorbax C8 (150 &times;4.6mm, 5&micro;) in gradient mode,&nbsp;&nbsp; with mobile phase containing Solvent-A: phosphate buffer adjusted the pH-3.0 with orthophosphoric acid Solvent-B: Methanol the flow rate was 1.5 mL/ min and eluents was monitored at 276 nm. The retention time Gemfibrozil was 5.158 min, respectively. The linearity for Gemfibrozil was in the range of 30-450 &micro;g/ml respectively. The recovery of Gemfibrozil was found to be 99.5%, respectively. The proposed method was validated and successfully applied to the estimation of Gemfibrozil in capsule dosage form
173-175
132
EVALUATION OF ANALGESIC AND ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF MOMORDICA CHAIRANTIA
*Sri Ramachandra M, Srinivasa Rao Avanapu and S Shobha Rani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the Analgesic &amp; anti inflammatory activities of the Momordica charantia extract. Momordica chirantia (MC) is a herbal medicine traditionally applied to treat so many diseases and disorders. In the evaluation of analgesic activity the model used was Eddy&rsquo;s hot plate method in which the animals treated with Momordica charantia and standard Pentazocin has significantly decreased the Hot plate-induced writhing and licking responses when compared with control group animals. The anti &ndash; inflammatory activity was screened by Carageenan induced paw edema model in which the animals treated with testing drug and standard Indomethacin has significantly reduced the inflammation when compared with carageenan induced inflammatory positive control group animals. So we can conclude that the extract of Momordica charantia has the analgesic and anti inflammatory activities. <br />
176-179
133
NIOSOMES – VESICULAR DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
*V. Lokeswara Babu , Sam T. Mathew1, K.N. Jayaveera and V.V. Prasanth
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
At present days drugs are formulated by using different novel drug delivery system (NDDS) which are used for targeting drugs to different organ systems and for controlled /sustained release of drug from the dosage forms. The NDDS can be used to overcome many disadvantages of conventional dosage forms like poor bioavailability, first pass effect, systemic toxicity, degradation of drug in stomach etc. which results in decreased biological activity of the drugs. Vesicular system is one of the important NDDS studied since a lot of time, of which main importance was given to liposomes. Due to the unstability of phospholipids (used for the formulation of liposomes) on storage was replaced with non ionic surfactants. Niosomal vesicles were prepared by using non ionic surfactants and were first reported in cosmetic industry. Niosomes are used as carrier systems for the delivery of most of the drugs, biologically active agents, hormones and antigens for the better treatment. The present review involves a detailed description about the drug delivery through niosomal formulation. <br />
180-185
134
FORMULATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND IN-VIVO ASSESSMENT OF TOPICAL NANOEMULSION OF BETAMETHASONE VALERATE FOR PSORIASIS AND DERMATOSE
*Md Sajid Ali, Md Sarfaraz Alam, Nawazish Alam, Syed Akmal Shah Qadry, Md Intakhab Alam, Md Shamim and Md Daud Ali
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of the current work was the formulation, characterization and in vivo study of betamethasone valerate nanoemulsion based on the induction of contact dermatitis in rats using a dispersion of nickel sulfate in solid vaseline at 5%, carragennen induce inflammation and their irritation study. Nanoemulsions were prepared by aqueous phase titration method, using sefsol, tween 20, transcutol P, and distilled water as the oil phase, surfactant, co surfactant and aqueous phase, respectively. Selected formulations were subjected to physical stability studies and consequently in vitro skin permeation studies. A surface study of optimized formulation was done by transmission electron microscopy. In vivo anti-inflammatory, In vivo irritation study and In vivo nickel induced contact dermatitis activity were done.&nbsp; The droplet size of nanoemulsion ranged from 150 to 200 nm. The optimized formulation exhibited viscosity 26.95 &plusmn; 1.71mP, refractive index 1.431, pH 6.5, and conductivity 10 -4 scm -1. The optimized nanoemulsion was converted into hydro gel using carbopol 934. Drug deposition in skin was found to be 58.46 &mu;g/cm2. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity indicated 84.2% and 45.05% inhibition of inflammation in case of developed nanoemulsion gel (A5) and marketed cream, respectively. The irritation score was found to be 1.83 which indicates our optimized nanoemulsion was not cause any irritation. Result of nickel induced dermatitis demonstrate that the nanoemulsion formulation (A5) gel did not appear to stimulate an inflammatory or immune response using the contact dermatitis model.
186-199
135
A VALIDATED AND STABILITY INDICATING HIGH PERFORMANCE THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF TERBUTALINE SULPHATE, GUAIPHENESIN AND BROMHEXINE HCL IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION
*Safeena Sheikh, Suhail Asghar and Showkat Ahmad
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A fast, rapid, sensitive and stability indicating high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method is developed and validated for quantitative estimation of terbutaline sulphate (TS), Guaiphenasin (G) and Bromhexine hydrochloride (B.HCl) simultaneously in pharmaceutical formulation (Cough Syrup). The sample are chromatographed on silica gel 60F254- TLC plates, using solvent system Dichloromethane: Methanol: Acetic Acid (7.5: 1:0.5) and scanned at 254nm. The current method demonstrates good linearity over the range for TS was 200-1200ng/spot with r2 of 0.999; G is 1.0-6.0mcg/spot with r2 of 0.998 and B.HCl 500-3500ng/spot with r2 of 0.997. The average recovery of the method is 100.47% for TS; 99.94% for G and 100.12% for B.HCl in formulation. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for TS, G and B.HCl were found to be 50-150ng/spot, 200-800ng/spot and 100-300ng/spot respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for the assay of market formulation. The degree of reproducibility of the results obtained as a result of small deliberate variations in the method parameter and by changing analytical parameter operated proven that the method is robust.
200-210
136
ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CHICORY ROOTS IN STREPTOZOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
*Faheem Mubeen, Hardeep and Dhananjay Kumar pandey
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
To study the antidiabetic activity of Chicory roots methanolic extract (MEC) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. MEC of root was subjected to preliminary qualitative phytochemical investigations by using standard procedures. The extract (400 mg/kg p.o.) was screened for antidiabetic activity in STZ-induced diabetic rats (30 mg/kg, i.p.). Acute oral toxicity study for the test extract of the plant root was carried out using OECD/OCED guideline 425. Phytochemical analysis of MEC of roots revealed the presence of inulin, sucrose, cellulose, protein, carbohydrates, lipids, alkaloids, glycosides and tannins compounds. In acute toxicity study, no toxic symptoms were observed for MEC up to dose 2000 mg/kg. Oral administration of MEC for 21 days exhibited highly significant (P &lt; 0.01) hypoglycemic activity and also correction of altered biochemical parameters, namely cholesterol and triglycerides significantly (P &lt; 0.05). Urine analysis on 1st day showed the presence of glucose and traces of ketone in the entire group except normal control group. However, on 21st day glucose and ketone traces were absent in MEC and glibenclamide-treated groups while they were present in diabetic control. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance followed by Dunnett&rsquo;s test. The observations confirm that methanolic extract of the root of the plant has antidiabetic activity and is also involved in correction of altered biological parameters. It also warrants further investigation to isolate and identify the hypoglycemic principles in this Chicory root so as to elucidate their mode of action.
211-216
137
FORMULATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE EXTENDED RELEASE AND GLIMEPIRIDE IMMEDIATE RELEASE INTO BILAYERED TABLET DOSAGE FORM: IN VITRO EVALUATION
*P. Shashidhar and G. Vidya sagar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The purpose of the research work was formulation development and evaluation bi-layer floating tablets for metformin hydrochloride and glimepiride to improve the oral therapeutic efficacy Both these drugs exhibit&nbsp; pH dependent solubility&nbsp; and show good permeability from stomach and upper part of the small intestine into systemic circulation. Direct compression method form metformin hydrochloride layer and wet granulation method for glimepiride was used to formulate bi-layer floating tablets. The optimized formula F-5 of metformin layer exhibits float for more than 12 h and extend drug release above 12 h. Different grades of methocel (HPMC) was used as was used as drug release retarding agents in order to get the extended release profile of metformin hydrochloride over a period of 12 h. Glimepiride immediate release layer was formulation using different excipients. HPMC K100M based formulation 5 was showing drug release according to the USP specifications and was optimized and kept of stability studies. The drug release profiles at 1 month in 40&#9702;C and 75%RH suggesting that In various invitro drug release kinetics studies Higuchi model was found to be the best fitted in all dissolution profile having higher correlation coefficient 0.995 followed by Peppas model and first order release, Slope of vergnaurd model obtained is 0.399. Indicates fickian diffusion and the rate of matrix erosion of metformin hydrochloride tablets were found to 0.062 /min from the tablets. <br />
217-227
138
IMPACT OF FURFURAL AND KEROSENE COEXPOSURE THROUGH INHALATION IN LUNGS OF RATS
*Tabarak Malik, D. K. Pandey
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Furfural is being added to kerosene to check the adulteration of gasoline/high speed diesel oil. The possibility of a co-exposure of furfural and kerosene and the ability to exhibit the toxic effects of such a mixture were examined in view of the toxicity potential of the two alone and in combination with each other. A single inhalation exposure of rats to furfural was fully tolerated up to a concentration of 126 ppm. However, exposure to higher concentrations of furfural resulted in a dose dependent mortality. Exposure of rats to vapor of kerosene ranging from 426-1054 ppm did not show toxic signs and mortality up to a period of seven days. Simultaneous exposure of rats to furfural and kerosene vapors ranging in concentration from 35 ppm to 138 ppm showed a suppression of LC50 value of furfural. The LC50 was 105 ppm in rats exposed to furfural-kerosene vapors. Inhalation exposure of rats to &frac12; LC50 of furfural to 95 ppm, 1 hr daily, 5 days/week over a period of 28 days caused severe irritation of eyes and nose leading to lacrimation, perinasal and perioral wetness, labored breathing and mild nasal bleeding. Neither the body weight nor lung weight showed any change as compared to the control group. Activities of acid and alkaline phosphatase, glutamic pyruvic and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminases, succinic dehydrogenase, total sulphydryl content and lactic acid content were evaluated.
228-233
139
SHRAGA™ Griseofulvin Topical for Treatment of Otomycosis: New Indication
*Shraga Shmuel, Elidan Josef, Ben Yaakov Avraham and Cohen Isaac
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This paper(documented by clinical assay and Susceptibility testing )will discuss, an innovative remedy (SHRAGA&trade;), containing Griseofulvin (GF), for treating Otomycosis , a fungal infection of the ear external auditory canal, by topical use, This composition includes: Tea tree oil (TTO) used for dissolving the (GF )in water , with its&nbsp; additional role of&nbsp; synergism effect to GF. Betamethasone (BM) which is a steroid, a synthetic glucocorticoid, known for its potent anti-inflammatory action, which also suppresses the immune response to GF. GF compound is non soluble in water and therefore was not available so far for use as topical treatment. Our methods make the facility for solubility of Griseofulvin in water for using&nbsp;&nbsp; it as a topical drug. Aspergillus. and Candida species are the most common isolated organisms in fungal external otitis(Otomycosis) .&nbsp; and were eradicated by(SHRAGA&trade;). GF alone has no any effect to Aspergillus. and Candida species. TTO originally by100% concentration has a negligible effect on Aspergillus, and Candida species which is toxic. In the contrary (SHRAGA&trade;), using a low concentration of TTO and GF, has safe and almost 3 fold effectiveness. (SHRAGA&trade;) is most effective for treating the majority of fungi such as Dermatophytes, Molds and Yeasts by topical use, whereas other remedies available in the market specialize in treating only&nbsp; one or at the most two fungi .&nbsp; <br />
234-240
140
NARAVELIA ZEYLANICA: A REVIEW
*Manasa Barlanka and Venu Gopal Y
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Plants are the principal source of raw materials for plant based medicine since ancient times. The traditional herbal medicines are receiving great importance in the health care sector.&nbsp; In Indian system of medicine i.e, ayurveda, one of the plant Naravelia zeylanica (Linn) DC belonging to family ranunculaceae has been used in the treatment of helminthiasis, dermatopathy, leprosy, rheumatalgia, odontalgia, colic inflammation, wounds and ulcers. It is distributed throughout india mainly in warm regions of Eastern Himalayas, Assam, Bengal, Bihar and greater parts of Deccan Peninsula. The aerial parts of Naravelia zeylanica traditionally used in vitiated vata, pitta, inflammation, skin diseases. The present review on Naravelia zeylanica is to know its importance with respect to pharmacognosy, pharmacology and phytochemistry in detail.
241-246
141
INVITRO EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT SOLVENT EXTRACTS OF SECURIDACA LONGEPEDACULATA
*Okoye EI, Ikegbunam MN, Amadi AK and Obi GE
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of the present study was to assess the antibacterial activity of different solvent extracts of Securidaca longependuculata. The&nbsp; methanol, petroleum&nbsp; ether&nbsp; and&nbsp; aqueous&nbsp; extracts of&nbsp; the&nbsp; stem&nbsp; bark of the plant were&nbsp; examined&nbsp; for&nbsp; antibacterial activity&nbsp; against Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas spp, using&nbsp; the&nbsp; agar well diffusion&nbsp; method while the minimum inhibitory concentration of methanol extract was evaluated using agar dilution method. The extracts were graded into different concentrations of 100mg/ml, 50mg/ml, 25mg/ml and 12.5mg/ml. Results&nbsp; showed&nbsp; that&nbsp; petroleum&nbsp; ether&nbsp; extract&nbsp; had no antibacterial activity&nbsp; while&nbsp; the&nbsp; aqueous&nbsp;&nbsp; extracts showed the most&nbsp; potent activity against Staphylococcus aureus (22.5mm at 100mg/ml) and Salmonella typhi (19mm at 100mg/ml), Escherichia coli (18.5mm at 100mg/ml) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (17.5 at 100mg/ml). Methanol extract had the second highest activity against the test organisms. The MIC of the methanol extract against the test organisms were 100mg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus and &#707;100mg/ml for the rest of the organisms tested. The entire evaluations showed that Securidaca longependuculata had antibacterial activity against clinical isolates tested.
247-250
142
ULTRA PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY: A CHROMATOGRAPHY TECHNIQUE
*G. Madhava Prathap and Amreen Nishat
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Ultra performance liquid chromatography systems take advantage of technological pace in particle chemistry performance, system optimization, detector design and data processing. When taken together, these achievements have created an improvement in chromatographic performance. This new category of analytical separation science retains the practicality and principles of HPLC while increasing the overall interrelated attributes of speed, sensitivity and resolution. Today&rsquo;s pharmaceutical industries are looking for new ways to cut cost and shorten time for development of drugs while at the same time improving the quality of their products and analytical laboratories are not exception in this trend. Speed allows a greater number of analyses to be performed in a shorter amount of time thereby increasing sample throughput and lab productivity. These are the benefits of faster analysis and hence the ultra performance liquid chromatography. A typical assay was transferred and optimized for UPLC system to achieve both higher sample analysis throughput and better assay sensitivity. Analysis of operation cost and sample throughput found UPLC cost advantageous over HPLC.<br />
251-260
143
CHRONOMODULATION: A PLATFORM FOR FUTURE DOSAGE FORMS
*Rahul Bhaskar, Radhika Bhaskar, Mahendra K. Sagar and Vipin Saini
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Gone are the days when patient incompliance was due to cumbersome dosage regimen. The mesmerizing technology of alteration in the time of release of the drug has not only opened up new possibilities but also has made many drug products based on them commercially available. These systems are based on the basic physiological phenomenon known as biological clock or circadian rhythm i.e. a daily cycle of biological activities which may get influenced with the environmental and several other factors. The system ensures the drug is released at the time of its requirement hence known as chronomodulated (chrono means &lsquo;time&rsquo; and modulation means &lsquo;alteration&rsquo;) drug delivery systems. There are a good number of platform technologies which either can be utilized as such or can be amended a bit to get the desired product. This review article deals with such technologies along with their commercially available products.
261-269
144
SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF LAMIVUDINE, TENOFOVIR AND EFAVIRENZ IN LAMIVUDINE, TENOFOVIR DISPROPOXIL FUMARATE AND EFAVIRENZ TABLETS BY STABILITY INDICATING ISOCRATIC RP-HPLC METHOD WITH PDA DETECTOR
*Manikya Rao T*, T. Prabhakar, Dr. G. Girija sankar PVL Naidu and N.Jyothi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple fast, accurate, precise and cost effective isocratic RP-HPLC method is developed for simultaneous determination of Lamivudine, Tenofovir and Efavirenz in tablet formulation. Lamivudine, Tenofovir and Efavirenz are considered as a very potent regimen in therapy-na&#305;ve patients and therefore, it is recommended as &#64257;rst-line therapy. It is indicated for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection in adults and adolescents with virologic suppression to HIV-1 RNA levels of &lt; 50 copies/ml on their current combination antiretroviral therapy for more than three months. Patients must not have experienced virological failure on any prior antiretroviral therapy. The retention times of Lamivudine, Tenofovir and Efavirenz were found to be 2.3, 3.6 and 13.6 minutes respectively. The method was linear over the range of 25 to 45 ppm with r2 = 0.999 for Lamivudine, 25 to 45 ppm with r2 = 0.999 for Tenofovir and 50 to 90 ppm with r2 = 0.999 for Efavirenz. Mean recovery for Lamivudine Tenofovir and Efavirenz were 100.5, 99.4 and 99.9 respectively. The method found simple, accurate, precise, and linear over the given range, rugged and robust.
270-276
145
VALIDATED STABILITY INDICATING REVERSE PHASE HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF PERINDOPRIL AND INDAPAMIDE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
*P.S.R.CH.N.P. Varma D, A. Lakshmana Rao and S.C. Dinda
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, precise and rapid HPLC method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of Perindopril and Indapamide in pharmaceutical dosage form. The method was carried out using Hypersil BDS C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5&micro;m) and mobile phase comprised of phosphate buffer pH 3.5&plusmn;0.05 and methanol in the ratio of 65:35 v/v and degassed under ultrasonication. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the effluent was monitored at 215 nm. The retention times of Perindopril and Indapamide were 3.53 min and 4.09 min respectively. The method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and by performing recovery study. Linearity was in the range of 160 to 480 &micro;g/mL for Perindopril and 50 to 150 &micro;g/mL for Indapamide respectively. The percentage recoveries of both the drugs were ranging from 97.8 to 101.7 for Perindopril and 98.7 to 101.8 for Indapamide respectively from the tablet formulation. The proposed method is suitable for the routine quality control analysis of simultaneous determination of Perindopril and Indapamide in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. <br />
277-289
146
GRAPE SEED EXTRACT- A THERAPEUTIC REVIEW
*K Naga Sravanthi, Rahamat Unissa, Y Prashanth, M Sudhakar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Grapes along with their leaves and sap have been traditional treatments in Europe for thousands of years. Grape seed extract is derived from the ground-up seeds of red wine grapes Vitisvinifera, Family: Vitaceae. Grape Seed is a great source of polyphenols-flavonoids, Essential Fatty Acid-linoleic acid, vitamin E, and oligomeric- proanthocyanidin(OPC), Gallic Acid, Resveratrol. Grape seed extract is now used to treat a number of diseases. Human case reports and results from basic research provide preliminary evidence that grape seed extract may affect diseases, hypertension, high levels of blood cholesterol, platelet aggregation, inflammation, reduce the risk for cancer, to treat diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy and various other conditions. As a nutritional supplement the extract is available in liquid, capsule or tablet form. It can be used as a nutritional supplement in various health conditions under the supervision of a doctor.
323-327
147
SYNTHESIS AND PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF NOVEL 1, 5-BENZOTHIAZEPINE DERIVATIVES AS ANTI-LUNG CANCER AGENTS
*K. L. Ameta, Nitu S. Rathore and Biresh Kumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A series of novel 1, 5-benzothiazepine derivatives having a biologically active thiazepine moiety was synthesized by the condensation of substituted chalcones with 2-aminothiophenol using conventional as well as non-conventional methods. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectral data and elemental analysis. All the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer activity against human lung cancer cell line (A549) using Adriamycin as a reference drug.
328-333
148
CaCO3 MICROPARTICLE CONTAINING IBANDRONATE–ALGINATE BEADS FOR IMPROVED ADHERENCE TO BISPHOSPHONATE ORAL THERAPY: FORMULATION AND IN-VITRO RELEASE
*Jaya Shukla, BR Mittal, A Sood, GP Bandopadhaya
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Bisphosphonates are established as supportive therapy to reduce the frequency and severity of cancer-related skeletal complications. Oral formulations are preferred over intravenous if the patients are not hospitalized. The maximum absorption of oral bisphosphonates takes place in stomach. The adverse events with oral dosing are seen in buccal mucosa and gastrointestinal tract, which lead to poor adherence to bisphosphonates therapy. In the present study different ibandronate-alginate beads were formulated and characterized for physiochemical parameters like shape, effect of ibandronate and alginate content, encapsulation of drug and drug release. CaCO3 microparticles were incorporated in ibandronate-alginate formulations and studied for increased ibandronate release in simulated gastric fluid (SGF). The ibandronate encapsulation in all formulations was high and was independent on the amount of drug encapsulated. The release of ibandronate from ibandronate-alginate beads was dependent on alginate concentration and not on the amount of drug encapsulated. Additionally, the drug release was more in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) than in SGF. However, the incorporation of CaCO3 microparticles in ibandronate&ndash;alginate beads increased the release of drug in SGF. The scanning electron microscope studies of CaCO3 microparticles containing ibandronate&ndash;alginate beads, after incubation in SGF, demonstrated the presence of tiny pores on the surface as well as within the beads. These beads also exhibited increased and sustained ibandronate release in SGF. <br />
340-347
149
ANALYTICAL DEVELOPMENT AND FORMULATION OF RAMIPRIL AND HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE IN COMBINATION WITH SELECTIVE EXCIPIENTS
*R. Vani, B. Vijaya Kumar, Anas Rasheed
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study is carried out for the analytical development and formulation of ramipril and hydrochlorothiazide in combination with selective excipients. The objective of drug and excipient compatibility considerations and practical studies is to delineate, as quickly as possible, real and possible interactions between potential formulation excipients and the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API). This is an important risk reduction excercise early in formulation of drugs. A specific and accurate reverse phase ultra-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the excipient compatibility studies of selective excipients in bulk drugs (Ramipril and Hydrochlorothiazide). The developed method consists of mobile phase, is a mixture of two solutions mobile phase A and mobile phase B in the ratio of 30:70. Mobile Phase A(Buffer and methanol in the ratio of 93:7, the buffer used is Sodium phosphate). Mobile Phase B (100 % Acetonite ) with gradient programming, Hypersil BDS C18, The size of the column is 100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 &mu;m column as stationary phase with a flow rate of 0.1 mL/min and the PDA detector is employed. With the proposed method the compatibility of the excipients with bulk drugs was found to be acceptable under the guidelines of ICH-Q8 (R2) and the excipients with bulk drugs are then subjected forauthenticated formulations and are assayed for purity of formulated tablets with marketed product for comparable studies. The in vitro dissolution studies were also carried out. The drug content obtained from the prepared formulations is also within the limits and comparable with the marketed product, Cardace. The formulated tablets have shown promising results in the invitro dissolution studies.
348-355
150
EVALUATION OF ANTIMITOTIC EFFECT OF CALOTROPIS PROCERA L ON ALLIUM CEPA L
*Bhat SK, Singhal K, Shruti Priya and Pal S
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Calotropis procera is a tropical medicinal plant known for its multiple curative effects on wide range of diseases. Current study has evaluated the antimitotic&nbsp; activity of the extracts of leaf and latex of C. procera on root meristem cells of Allium cepa. Onion bulbs were allowed to grow roots on moist cotton imbibed with solutions of test sample with known concentration of the extracts. Mitotic index was estimated in squash preparation of root tips collected after 72 hrs and compared with control.&nbsp; Reduction in mitotic index of the target cells was observed to varying extent among the treatments. Chloroform extract of the latex showed highest level of inhibition of cell division and ethyl acetate extract of the latex showed least inhibition, while chloroform extract of the leaf did not interfered with cell division. Outcomes of the study have indicated presence of potential anticancer component in C. procera. <br />
356-359
151
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF IRBESARTAN AND HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
*S. Hemamrutha, R. Rambabu and S. Vidhyadhara
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, accurate and precise RP-HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of Irbesartan (IRB) and Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in combination. A&nbsp; C 18 (Agilent ODS UG 5 Column 250mmX4.5 mm Dimensions) column with mobile phase composition&nbsp; Methanol: Acetonitrile: Buffer (10mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate pH6.8)(40:30:30%v/v/v) was used at isocratic mode and eluents were monitored at 264 nm. The retention times of IRB and HCTZ were 5.1 and 3.1min respectively. Irbesartan showed good linearity in the concentration range of 24-120 &micro;g/ml with a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.9993 and 2-10 &micro;g/ml for Hydrochlorothiazide with correlation coefficient (R) 0.9995 respectively.&nbsp; The proposed method was validated as per ICH guidelines and method showed good precision with percent relative standard deviation less than 2%. The assay values of Irbesartan and Hydrochlorothiazide were found to be 99.85 and 101% respectively and recovery values are within the limits of 98-102% indicating the proposed method was accurate and precise for the simultaneous estimation of Irbesartan and Hydrochlorthiazide in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms.
360-363
152
WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC SEED EXTRACT OF BRASSICA JUNCEA
*Siva Kumar Gurram, Lakshmi Sindhoor K, Govindarao M, Karthik YP, Sudha Bhargavi CH
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Wound healing is physiological process, which takes place by body&rsquo;s natural regenerative capacity. Due to various reasons they may delay in healing and this prolonged healing sometimes lead to scar formation. Currently attention has been focused on natural products to prevent infections and to promote the healing. In the present study, Brassica juncea has been used since ancient times and it is popularly known as mustards. The aim of present study was to evaluate the wound healing activity of ethanolic extracts of Brassica juncea (EEBJ) against incision, excision and burn wound models in rats. Ethanolic extract has shown the wound healing activity against different wound models in rats in a concentration dependent manner and among the two concentrations of gels. 20% gel shows better wound healing activity compared to 10% gel.
364-368
153
MICROWAVE MEDIATED GREEN SYNTHESIS OF SOME PYRAZOLINES AND ISOXAZOLINES
*Sonal D.Boob and PR. Solanki
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Pyrazolines and Isoxazolines have been reported to possess various activities such as analgesic, antiplatelet, antimalerial, anticancer and antiviral. Four new substituted bis benzylidiene derivative (IIIa-IIId) have been synthesized with 80-85% yield by microwave promoted condensation of ketone and aromatic aldehyde in presence of Sodium carbonate as solid phase media .A Considerable&nbsp; increase in the reaction rate has been observed with better yields .The newly synthesized derivatives were treated with hydrazine hydrate and&nbsp; hydroxylamine hydrochloride&nbsp; to synthesize pyrazolines(IVa-d) and isoxazolines(Va-d)with neat reaction technology .The newly synthesized derivatives were characterized by&nbsp; UV, IR, PMR&nbsp; and elemental analysis and also screened for antimicrobial activity .
369-373
154
ASSESSMENT OF THE ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIAL OF BREADFRUIT LEAF EXTRACTS AGAINST PATHOGENIC BACTERIA
*Chinmay Pradhan, Monalisa Mohanty and Abhijeeta Rout
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) leaf extracts in different solvent media (petroleum ether, methanol and ethyl acetate) were examined for the antimicrobial activity against some pathogenic bacterial species like Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis following the MIC (minimal inhibitory concentrations). Steroids, phytosterols, gums and resins were detected in methanolic, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether leaf extracts. Phenols and terpenoids were detected in both the ethyl acetate and methanolic leaf extracts. Flavonoids were present in the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate leaf extracts whereas tannins were detected only in the methanolic leaf extract of Artocarpus altilis. The MIC values ranges from 0.3 mg/ml to 0.6 mg/ml which correspond to variations in different solvent media used for leaf extracts against four different pathogenic microbes.
374-379
155
SUPERDISINTEGRANTS IN FAST DISINTEGRATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: A BRIEF REVIEW
*Vimal VV, Aarathi TS, Anuja, Soumya Baby John
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Disintegration plays a major role in facilitating drug action in oral solid dosage forms. Disintegrants (substances or mixture of substances) when added to the drug formulation facilitates the breakup or disintegration of tablet or capsule content into smaller particles that dissolve more rapidly. The inclusion of right disintegrant is a prerequisite requirement to get an optimum bioavailability in tablets and capsules which need rapid disintegration. Super-disintegrants are used to improve the efficacy of solid dosage forms. This is achieved by decreasing the disintegration time which in turn enhances drug dissolution rate. Super-disintegrants are generally effective in a low concentration, and generally at higher concentrations they hinder disintegration. Examples of Super-disintegrants are crosscarmelose, crosspovidone, sodium starch glycolate which represents crosslinked cellulose, crosslinked polymer and a crosslinked starch, respectively. The development of fast dissolving or disintegrating tablets provides an opportunity to take an account of tablet disintegrants. The disintegrants have the major function to act against the efficiency of the tablet binder and the physical forces that act under compression to form the tablet. The stronger the binder, the more effective must be the disintegrating agents in order for the tablet to release its medication. . The present review describes super-disintegrants, their types, selection criteria and various methods of incorporating disintegrants and mechanism of tablet disintegration.
380-386
156
THE WORLD OF BREAST CANCER - A REVIEW
*Venu T, Vamshi N and Anil A
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Cancer is a generic term for a large group of diseases that can occur in any part of the body. It is caused by abnormal changes in the &lsquo;DNA&rsquo; of the cell. Of all the types of cancers, &lsquo;Breast cancer&rsquo; is most dangerous. It occurs mostly in women. Nearly 4,60,000 deaths per year are caused only by the breast cancer1. Though there are many different types of cancer treatments like chemotherapy (chemotherapy medicines prevent cancer cells from growing and spreading by destroying the cells or stopping them from dividing.), surgery (removing the part of the breast which underwent the cancer.), hormonal therapy (hormonal therapy medicines treat the hormone receptor-positive breast cancers.) etc. but till now there is no successful method of treatment to cure the cancer completely. So always we need a new technology to treat the cancer. Thus nano technology, microwave technology, targeted therapy were introduced to detect and treat the cancer.&nbsp; Along with those technologies we can boost the immune system to fight against the cancer, drugs to silence the activity of &lsquo;hedgehog molecule&rsquo; to prevent the metastasis of cancer and using &lsquo;blue berries&rsquo; to prevent aggressive form of breast cancer. The research on mouse models that have contributed to our understanding of the molecular processes underlying breast cancer metastasis and how such experimentation can open new avenues to the development of innovative cancer therapy.
386-395
157
A CRITICAL REVIEW ON FUNDAMENTAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS OF FT-IR SPECTROSCOPY
*G. Murali Krishna, M. Muthukumaran, B. Krishnamoorthy, Ameren Nishat
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is a technique which is used to obtain an infrared spectrum of absorption, emission, photoconductivity or ramanscattering of&nbsp; solid,&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; liquid or gas. An FTIR spectrometer simultaneously collects spectral data in a wide spectral range. An FT-IR Spectrometer is an instrument which acquires broadband NIR to FIR spectra. Unlike a dispersive instrument, i.e. grating monochromator or spectrograph, FT-IR Spectrometers collect all wavelengths simultaneously. FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infra Red) is a method of obtaining infrared spectra by first collecting an interferogram of a sample signal using an interferometer, and then performing a Fourier Transform (FT) on the interferogram to obtain the spectrum. The main goal of FTIR spectroscopic analysis is to determine the chemical functional groups in the sample. Using various sampling accessories, FTIR spectrometers can accept a wide range of sample types such as gases, liquids, and solids. Thus, FTIR spectroscopy is an important and popular tool for structural elucidation and compound identification.
396-402
158
ANTIAMNESIC ACTIVITY OF GUGGUL EXTRACT ON SCOPOLAMINE INDUCED AMNESIA IN MICE
*Ajay J Parikh, Krishna KL
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Objective of this study was to evaluate Guggul extract for the treatment of Alzheimer&rsquo;s disease using scopolamine induced amnesia in mice on Morris water maze. Guggul extract (50mg/kg) was administered orally for fifteen successive days followed by Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg i.p.) from 15th to 18th day in mice. Morris water maze was employed to evaluate learning and memory using parameter like Escape Latency Time (ELT), Time Spent in Target Quadrant (TSTQ) and determination of brain Acetylcholinesterase level. Scopolamine was used to induce amnesia in mice and the activity was compared with standard drug Piracetam.&nbsp;&nbsp; Guggul extract significantly improved learning and memory in mice and reversed the scopolamine induced amnesia. Guggul extract when co administered with Piracetam (200mg/kg) has shown synergistic activity. Guggul extract is a known hypolipidemic agent and has shown excellent activity in scopolamine induced amnesia when given orally for 15 successive days in mice. It has shown synergistic effect with Piracetam and further detailed studies are required to exploit Guggul extract as new therapeutic agents for antialzheimer&rsquo;s disease. <br />
403-409
159
ASSESSMENT OF PATIENT SATISFACTION ON THE SERVICES PROVIDED BY COMMUNITY PHARMACIES IN AND AROUND PULIKKAL, KERALA
*Linu Mohan P, Shamna M, Dilip C, Abin C, Sajeev V Kumar, Sheron Joseph
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study was planned to assess the patient satisfaction on the services provided by the community pharmacies at Pulikkal Panchayath &ndash; Kerala. A questionnaire was prepared with 10 questions which is helpful to measure the patient satisfaction level on the services like, availability of drugs, time taken for billing and dispensing, approach of pharmacist, advices on current health problem / general advices on medicine, location and layout of the pharmacy refund system, counselling service on side effects. A total of hundred filled questionnaire were collected back and the analysis of answers were done. Patients expressed that they were satisfied with the availability of the medicine in most of the pharmacies, and also the time taken for billing and dispensing of medicine. 38% of respondents were satisfactory in approach of the pharmacist. The locations of all pharmacies were very much convenient to the patient. Anyway most of the patients (37%) were not satisfied on services like advices on current health problem, general advices on medicine and the counselling service on side effects of drugs. Considering all the factors overall rating of the pharmacy was good (40%).
501-509
160
PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF CYCAS CIRCINALIS (L.) AND IONIDIUM SUFFRUTICOSUM (GING.)
*Senthil Kumar Babu, Vijaya kumar Jagadesan, Selvaraj Ramasamy, Panneer Selvi Gopalsamy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
India is one of the countries richly endowed with vast species of medicinal plants. The various bioactive phytoconstituents of the medicinal plants were identified and used for many chronic ailments. Cycas circinalis L. and Ionidium suffruticosum Ging. are the two herbs which were used in Indian medicine (Siddha) for improving the fertility of male. The present study involves the preliminary physicochemical, phytochemical analysis of the above said herbs. Physicochemical analysis involving ash values such as total ash, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash for Cycas (8.12, 0.64, and 5.2 respectively) and for Ionidium (9.76, 0.94, and 5.6 respectively). The heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic were found to be within permissible limits in both the herbs. The powdered plant material of Cycas showed presence of alkaloid, flavonoids, amino acids and triterpenoids with percent yield of 40% in ethanolic solvent whereas Ionidium showed the presence of alkaloid, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, amino acids and triterpenoids with percent yield of 32% in ethanolic solvent.
510-513
161
PHARMACOGNOSTIC, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF CURCUMA LONGA LINN. RHIZOME
*P.V. Kadam, K.N. Yadav, F.A. Patel, F.A. Karjikar, M. K. Patidar, M.J. Patil
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In recent year there has been rapid increase in the standardization of selected medicinal plant of potential therapeutic significance. Despite the morden techniques, identification of plant drug by Pharmacognostic study is more reliable. The rhizomes of Curcuma longa reported to have good medicinal values in traditional system of medicines. The present study deals with pharmacognostic parameters for the rhizomes of Curcuma longa which mainly consist of Macromorphology, Cytomorphology, Physico-chemical constants and Phytochemical screening. This information will be of used for further pharmacological and instrumental evaluation of the species and will assist in standardization for quality, purity and sample identification.
514-520
162
METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF IRBESARTAN AND HYDROCHLORTHIAZIDE BY RP-HPLC IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
*Ramesh Bhukya, Elizabeth Y, Dhanalaxmi K, D. Nagarjuna Reddy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, precise, accurate and rapid reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method had been developed for simultaneous estimation of Irbesartan (IRBE) and Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in bulk and Pharmaceutical dosage form. A Phenomex Luna C-18 column having I&rsquo;d of 150&times;4.6 mm and 5&micro;m particle size was used. The method was carried out in gradient program using mobile phase, 0.02M Potassium dehydrogenate orthophosphate: acetonitrile (60:40 v/v) adjusted to pH-3.4 using dilute ortho phosphoric acid. Flow rate was adjusted to 1.0ml/min and effluents were monitored at 224nm. The retention time obtained for Irbesartan and HCTZ was 2.59 &amp; 8.13min respectively. The calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 100-300&micro;g/ml for Irbesartan and 50-150&micro;g/ml for HCTZ. The developed method was validated in accordance to ICH guidelines.
521-526
163
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF LORNOXICAM AS MUCOADHESIVE MICROCAPSULES
*Varun Sharma, Bharat Parashar, Abhisekh Chandel and Ajay Chandel
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The microencapsulation has a major role in solving the problems regarding targeting of drug to a specific organ tissue and controlling the rate of drug delivery to the target site. Microencapsulated drug delivery system plays a major role in developing oral controlled release systems. The objective of this work was to discuss how the efficiency of drug delivery can be increased and also how the release of drug and drug targeting can be improved. This work provides the thorough literature review of different techniques involved in microencapsulation and evaluation parameters of microencapsulation process. Various formulations were developed by using release rate controlling and gel forming polymers like HPMC-5 and HPMC-15. From among all the developed formulations, F3 formulation with HPMC-5 sustained the drug release for longer period of time as compared to other formulations. So, F3 formulation with HPMC-5 was selected as the best formulation. It was concluded that the release followed Zero order kinetics. Thus, best formulation satisfied physicochemical parameters and in vitro drug release profile requirements for a sustained drug delivery system.
527-533
164
METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ROSUVASTATIN AND OLMESARTAN IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC
*Elijabeth.Y, Ramesh.B, K.Dhanalaxmi, Nagarjuna reddy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, precise, accurate and rapid reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic new method had been developed for simultaneous estimation of Rosuvastatin and Olmesartan in bulk and tablet dosage form. An Agilent XDB, C18 column having I&rsquo;d of 150&times;4.6 mm and 5&micro;m particle size was used. The new method was carried out in gradient program using mobile phase, 0.01M Potassium Dehydrogenate orthophosphate: acetonitrile (55:45 v/v) adjusted to pH-3.2 using dilute ortho phosphoric acid. Flow rate was adjusted to 1.0ml/min and effluents were monitored at 240nm. The retention time obtained for Rosuvastatin and Olmesartan was 2.61 and 5.13min respectively. The calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 10-30&micro;g/ml for Rosuvastatin and 50-150&micro;g/ml for Olmesartan. The developed method was validated in accordance to ICH guidelines.
534-539
165
FORMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AMPHOTERICIN B LIPOSOMES PREPARED BY THIN FILM HYDRATION METHOD
*Arvind G, Sumit Shah, Shanmukha Mule, Prashanth P, Noveen Konda
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Amphotericin B is a polyene antifungal drug used intravenously for systemic fungal infections. Simple solution of amphotericin B is having many side effects while liposomal amphotericin B preparations exhibit fewer side-effects having similar efficacy. Various preparations of liposomal amphotericin B have recently been introduced and all of these are more expensive than plain amphotericin B. Fungisome and Abelcet are liposomal complex formulation of amphotericin B and being the latest and cheapest addition to the lipid formulations of amphotericin B. AmBisome is a liposomal formulation of amphotericin B for injection which is having less side effects as compared to all other formulations of Amphotericin B. Liposomal formulation of amphotericin B for injection, prepared by thin film hydration technique was selected in the present study. Different formulations variables (solvents ratio and pH of complex formation) and process variable (numbers of homogenization cycles) were carried out to control the impurities levels and particle size of liposomes. Formulation prepared at pH 3.0 with 1:2 solvent ratio (Methanol: Chloroform) was given least impurities. Formulation prepared at 1400 bar pressure with 15 homogenization cycles was shown desire particle size.&nbsp; The optimized formulation was exhibited more than 90% release of drug for a period of 7 days. The stability study (40&plusmn;2&deg;C/ 75&plusmn;5% RH) of the Amphotericin B liposomes was evaluated for 3 months and it was found to be stable.<br /><br />
540-547
166
FORMULATION AND IN VITRO - IN VIVO EVALUATION OF BILAYER FLOATING-BIOADHESIVE FAMOTIDINE TABLETS
*Prabha A. Singh, Amrita Narayan Bajaj, Anjali Harikrishna Singh
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Bilayer floating-bioadhesive drug delivery systems exhibiting a unique combination of floatation and bioadhesion to prolong gastric residence time were developed. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and sodium bicarbonate were added such that when immersed in 0.1N HCl, the tablet expands and rises to the surface and famotidine is gradually released without interference from gas bubbles. Effect of different ratios of drug: polymer on in vitro release profile was investigated. Developed tablets were evaluated for uniformity of weight, hardness, friability, drug content, buoyancy and floating lag time. Time buoyancy curve, detachment force and swelling index were evaluated. Antiulcer activity of famotidine tablets was assessed by inducing ulcers in fasted rats by ethanol and indomethacin. Measurement of gastric contents was carried out by ulcer induced pylorus liagated rats. Prepared tablets exhibited satisfactory physico-chemical characteristics. The tablet swelled radially and axially during in vitro buoyancy studies. From the buoyancy kinetic curve it was observed that bilayer tablet started floating in less than 10 minutes and remained buoyant for 12h. In vivo antiulcer studies exhibited that developed formulation showed comparable percent inhibition of ulcers to standard in both gastric ulcer models. Gastric pH was significantly reduced showing decreased acid output. Thus floating-bioadhesive systems exhibited independent regulation of buoyancy and drug release and in vivo studies showed good antiulcer efficacy confirming potential of floating-bioadhesive tablets as drug delivery system for prolonging gastric residence and enhancing local effect of famotidine.
548-555
167
FORMULATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS OF LEVOFLOXACIN
*Satyabrata Bhanja, Parthasarathi Mishra, Sudhakar Muvvala, Arun Kumar Das
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study aimed to formulate and evaluate sustained release matrix tablets of levofloxacin to achieve sustained drug release with reduced side effects and improved patient compliance. Different batches of sustained release matrix tablets of levofloxacin were prepared by direct compression method using HPMC, sodium CMC and sodium alginate as polymers, Avicel PH 102 (MCC) as filler and starch as binder. The prepared tablets were evaluated for hardness, weight variation, friability, drug content uniformity, in vitro drug release, in vitro drug release kinetics and Acceralerated stability studies. It was found average hardness of the tablets to be in range 6.7&plusmn; 0.04 to 7.7 &plusmn; 0.35 kg/cm2. The friability of the prepared tablets was found in the range of 0.005&plusmn;0.034 to 0.6&plusmn;0.035 %. The uniformity of drug levofloxacin present in tablets formulation ranged from 96.84 &plusmn; 0.16 to 98.87 &plusmn; 0.34%. The in vitro drug release was studied by using pH 1.2 acidic buffer for 24 hours. Among all twelve formulations F1 to F12, the best formulation F4 was found to be 99.5% drug release in 24 hours which showed the sustained action drug release. The formulations F1 to F12 followed first order release kinetics with non fickian diffusion mechanism. <br />
556-564
168
FORMULATION AND CHARECTERIZATION OF IN SITU IMPALNT OF OCTREOTIDE ACETATE
*Prashanth P, Sumit Shah, Arvind G, Naveen Konda
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Octreotide is the acetate salt of a cyclic octapeptide. It is a long-acting octapeptide with pharmacologic properties mimicking those of the natural hormone somatostatin. The peptide drugs after oral and parental administration the poor bioavailability in the blood due to their short biological half &ndash;lives caused by their metabolic instability. so that these peptide drugs are formulated by polymeric drug delivery systems such as micro particles or implants, has been proposed enabling their sustained&nbsp; release after a residence time in the polymer which protects the peptide against enzymatic and hydrolytic influences of biological media. In the present study, In situ implants of Octreotide acetate were prepared by polymer precipitation method. PLGA is dissolved in hydrophilic solvents such as Dimethyl sulphoxide, N-Methyl 2-pyrrolidone, PEG-200 and Triacetin until the formation of a clear solution. Different formulations were prepared using different concentration of polymer i.e. 5to35 % w/w. The characterization of implant was carried out by Determination of PLGA 5050 polymer ratio by NMR, Determination of molecular weight of polymer by GPC, Viscosity of polymer solution, Sterility test, In-vitro drug release, Release kinetics and Scanning electron microscopy. The Maximum percent of drug release with minimum Initial Burst release was found in formulation (F3) with NMP as solvent. Effect of gamma irradiation on molecular weight of polymer, viscosity of polymer solution, monomer ratio of lactide and glycolide and in-vitro release after gamma radiation was studied with F3 formulation.
565-573
169
NOVEL SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR THE ASSAY OF NATEGLINIDE IN PURE AND DOSAGE FORMS
*Ch. Sudheer, T.Tirumaleswara Rao, B.V.Sreenivasulu, C. Ramababu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Two simple, sensitive and selective methods for the determination of Nateglinide in bulk and in pharmaceutical formulations were described. These methods are based on extraction of this drug into chloroform as ion-pair with basic dyes, Safranin O (SFNO) and Methylene blue (MB). The optimum conditions of the reactions of the developed methods were studied and optimized. The absorbance of the colored products was measured at 515nm for nateglinide-SFNO and 620nm for nateglinide-MB. The calibration curves obeyed the beer&#39;s law over the concentration range of 2.5-12.5&mu;g/mL for nateglinide-SFNO and nateglinide-MB with correlation (r2=0.9997 &amp; 0.9992) respectively. The results of analysis for the two methods have been validated statistically and by the recovery studies. The proposed methods were simple, sensitive and economical for the quantitative determination of nateglinide and were successfully employed for the assay in bulk and in formulations.
574-578
170
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FAST DISSOLVING TABLETS OF LORNOXICAM
*Jyothi Rani L, K. Abbulu, Nagabushan Rao T, A Akhila
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Mouth dissolving tablets are also known as fast disintegrating, fast dissolving, fast melt, quick melt tablets. Lornoxicam is an NSAID with 100% bioavailability having a bitter taste. So by formulating it as an ODT the absorption and the bioavailability of the drug will fasten and hence the action of the drug will be faster .The mode of action of Lornoxicam is mainly by inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis (inhibition of cyclooxygeanase enzyme). So the purpose of the present work is to formulate a taste masked mouth dissolving tablet of Lornoxicam. Taste masking was done by using Eudragit (EPO 100) in different ratios. Three superdisintegrants were used namely sodium starch glycolate, crospovidone, crosscarmellose sodium. The tablets were evaluated for various parameters like hardness, friability, drug content, disintegration and in vivo dissolution. Among all the formulations F5 showed 98% drug release with in 15 min. So it was considered as best formulation.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <br />
579-586
171
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE TABLETS OF VILDAGLIPTIN
*Vishnu P, Shireesh kiran R, Chaitanya B, Naveenbabu K, Vijayavani Ch. S.
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The purpose of this research work was to establish Vildagliptin sustained release matrix tablets of&nbsp; 50mg. Vildagliptin is an anti diabetic drug of the new dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor class of drug. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique using different grades of Hydroxy Propyl Methyl cellulose (HPMC K 100 LV, HPMC K15M and HPMC K4M) as extended release polymer. Tablets were evaluated for different parameters such as thickness, hardness, friability, weight variation, in vitro dissolution studies and FT-IR studies. The physico-chemical property of the finished product compiles with the internal specification limits. In vitro release from the formulation was studied as per the USP and IP dissolution procedure. The formulation gave a release of 98.5 % for 24 hr and the data best fitted into Higuchi model.&nbsp; From the present study it was concluded that the vildagliptin sustained release tablets can extend drug release and improve the bioavailability of vildagliptin. <br />
587-593
172
Analytical Method development and Method validation for the simultaneous estimation of Metformin HCL and Linagliptin in Bulk and tablet Dosage Form by RP-HPLC Method
*A. Janardhan Swamy, K. Harinadha Baba
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A rapid, highly sensitive, economical and accurate RP-HPLC method was developed for simultaneous estimation of Metformin HCL and Linagliptin in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage form. The separation was achieved by Hypersil C18 column (250 &times; 4.6 mm, 5 &mu; particle size) with mobile phase consisting of phosphate buffer (pH 5.6, diluted with orthophosphoric acid), methanol and acetonitrile in the ratio of 40:5:55 v/v, using flow rate 1.0 mL/min and eluents monitored at 233nm .The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines for specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The retention times of Linagliptin and Metformin were 5.4 and 6.6 min respectively. The linearity was found to be in the range of 125-750 &mu;g/mL and 0.625-3.75 &mu;g/mL for Metformin and Linagliptin respectively, had regression coefficients (R2) 0.999. The proposed method was successfully applied for simultaneous estimation of both drugs in Pharmaceutical formulation.
594-600
173
A VALIDATED RP-HPLC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF ALISKIRIN AND AMLODIPINE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM
*Venkata Raveendra Babu Vemula, Pankaj Kumar Sharma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, accurate, rapid, precise, specific and cost effective reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method have been developed and subsequently validated for simultaneous estimation of Aliskiren and Amlodipine in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Chromatography is carried out isocratically at 30&deg;C &plusmn; 0.5&deg;C on an Water&rsquo;s X-bridge C-18 column (4.6 x 150mm, 5&mu; particle size) with a mobile phase composed&nbsp; of&nbsp; acetonitrile -phosphate&nbsp; buffer&nbsp; (pH-2.5)&nbsp; (40:60, v/v)&nbsp; at&nbsp; a&nbsp; flow rate&nbsp; of&nbsp; 1.0&nbsp; mL/min. Detection&nbsp; was carried out using a PDA detector at 230 nm. Parameters such as linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, specificity and ruggedness are studied as reported in the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The retention times for Aliskiren and Amlodipine are 3.8 min and 5.1 min respectively. The linearity range for Aliskiren and Amlodipine are 18.75-187.5&micro;g/ml and 1.25-12.5 &micro;g/ml respectively. The correlation coefficients for both components are close to 1. The relative standard deviations for six replicate measurements of samples in tablets are always less than 2%.
601-606
174
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ROSUVASTATIN AND FENOFIBRATE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM
*S. Thukabai, V. Uma Maheshwara Rao and Muhammad Rafi Shaik
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new precise, accurate, reliable validated method for the determination of Rosuvastatin and Fenofibrate has been developed by using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) in pharmaceutical dosage form. Chromatographic separation was carried out by using mobile phase 0.01M Potassium dihydrogen phosphate: methanol (55:45v/v, PH-2.6 adjusted with Orthophosphoric acid) on Agilent XDB C18 (150 x 4.6 mm, 5&#61549;) at a flow rate 1ml/min with UV detection at 220nm.The retention times for Rosuvastatin and Fenofibrate were 2.36 and 5.80 min respectively and both drugs showed good linearity in the range of 5-20 &micro;g/ml and 80-320 &micro;g/ml. The proposed method has been successfully applied to pharmaceutical formulation and was validated according to ICH guidelines and method showed good precision with percentage relative standard deviation less than 2%. The percentage recovery for Rosuvastatin and Fenofibrate was found between 99.06-100.94% and 99.12-100.95% respectively indicating the proposed method was accurate and precise.
607-612
175
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF LAMIVUDINE AND TENOFOVIR DISPROXIL FUMARATE IR TABLETS
*Patil Sagar Nanaji, Swati Shailendra Rawat, D. Yashwanth Kumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The main objective of the present study is to formulate and evaluate an immediate release tablet of Lamivudine and Tenofovir Disproxil Fumarate using different disintegrants. Lamivudine and Tenofovir Disproxil Fumarate belong to class of anti-retroviral drugs known as nucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Pre formulation studies were performed prior to compression. The tablets were compressed using microcrystalline cellulose, crospovidone, crosscarmallosesodium, magnesium stearate and Aerosil. The fabricated tablets were evaluated for various micrometric properties like bulk density, tapped density, compressibility index, Hausner&rsquo;s ratio, angle of repose and post compression characteristics like thickness, hardness, friability, disintegration time and drug release. Crospovidone is found to be the better disintegrant when compared to crosscarmallosesodium in the formulation of immediate release tablets of Lamivudine and Tenofovir Disproxil Fumarate. The absorbance of Lamivudine and Tenofovir Disproxil Fumarate were screened in the UV region and the maximum absorbance was found to be 271 nm and 260nm respectively and this was used for UV analysis. Among the six different formulations developed F6 was found to be the best one with a drug release of 99.96% at the end of 30min. <br />
613-617
176
MICROANATOMICAL DEFORMATION AFTER PTZ INDUCED SEIZURE IN MICE BRAIN
*Pankaj Kalita, Manash Barthakur
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Seizure is an abnormal state of brain electrical activity. The causes of seizure are different but seizure can be induced artificially also. Present experiment was conducted on albino mice and seizure was induced by Pentamethyline tetrazole (PTZ). Duration of seizure was maintained more than half an hour. Mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and brain was removed. Brain was fixed in Carnoy&rsquo;s fixatives and sectioned at 5 micron thickness. Histological slide was stained in H&amp;E stain. Micro-anatomical deformation of brain was observed in treated animals. Simultaneously control group of mice was maintained in same laboratory conditioned. Loss of cellular architecture in the neocortex I remarkably observed.&nbsp; Excitatory neurotransmitter overloaded in axon terminal may be responsible for neuronal degeneration.
618-620
177
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF NOVEL HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF CEFIXIME AND MOXIFLOXACIN IN COMBINED TABLET DOSAGE FORM
*B. Raja, A. Lakshmana Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, rapid, accurate and precise RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of Cefixime and Moxifloxacin in combined tablet dosage form. The chromatographic separation was carried out on Hypersil BDS C18 column (100 x 4.6 mm; 3 &micro;) with a mixture of phosphate buffer pH 6.0: acetonitrile (75: 25 V/V) as a mobile phase; at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. UV detection was performed at 293 nm. The retention times were 2.374 min and 5.776 min for Cefixime and Moxifloxacin respectively. Calibration plots were linear (r2=0.999) over the concentration range of 5-30 &micro;g/mL for both Cefixime and Moxifloxacin. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity and sensitivity. The proposed method was successfully used for quantitative analysis of Cefixime and Moxifloxacin tablets. No interference from any component of pharmaceutical dosage form was observed. Validation studies revealed that the method is specific, rapid, reliable and reproducible. The high recovery and low relative standard deviation confirm the suitability of the proposed method for routine estimation of Cefixime and Moxifloxacin in pure sample and tablet dosage forms.
621-627
178
INVITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SACCHARUM SPONTANEUM
*M. Sai Krishna, K. Naga Sravanthi, G. Sreenika, S. Chaithanya, M. Sudhakar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Biomolecules can be oxidized by free radicals which results in oxidative stress. This oxidative damage has an important etiological role in aging and development of diseases like cancer, atherosclerosis, and other inflammatory disorders. Synthetic antioxidants, like Butylated hydroxyl anisole, Butylated hydroxyl toluene are good free radical scavengers. However, synthetic antioxidants can be carcinogenic. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in searching for antioxidants of natural origin. We report here the in vitro antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of S. spontaneum. The activity of S.spontaneum has been tested using various antioxidant models viz., total phenolic and flavonoid content, estimation of DPPH, nitric oxide,&nbsp; superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity at different concentrations. This study indicates significant free radical scavenging potential of S.spontaneum which may be due to the presence of high Phenolic and Flavonoid content.<br />
628-633
179
A VALIDATED STABILITY-INDICATING HPLC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF TICAGRELOR IN BULK AND ITS FORMULATION
*L. Kalyani, A. Lakshmana Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, rapid, accurate and precise stability-indicating HPLC method was developed and validated for the determination of Ticagrelor in bulk and its tablet dosage forms. Separation of the drug was achieved on Hypersil BDS C18 column (100 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 &micro;) as stationary phase with mobile phase consisting of phosphate buffer pH 3.0 and acetonitrile in the ratio of 70: 30 V/V. The method showed a good linear response in the concentration range of 22.5-135 &micro;g/mL with correlation coefficient of 0.999. The flow rate was maintained at 1.0 mL/min and effluents were monitored at 254 nm. The retention time was 3.215 min. The percentage assay of Ticagrelor was 99.9%. The method was statistically validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, ruggedness, robustness, solution stability, selectivity and forced degradation studies. The results obtained in the study were within the limits of ICH guidelines and hence this method can be used for the determination of Ticagrelor in pharmaceutical dosage forms.
634-642
180
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MOUTH DISSOLVING FILMS OF ZOLPIDEM TARTRATE BY EXPLORATION OF POLYMERS COMBINATION
*M.K. Patidar, F.A. Karjikar, F.A. Patel, S.S. Rathi, S.B. Thokal, C.L. Bhingare
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Fast dissolving drug delivery is the new approach to administer drugs; mouth dissolving film is one of them. The object of the present research work was to formulate a mouth dissolving film of Zolpidem tartrate from polymers Hydroxypropyl cellulose (EF-P) with a combination of Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose K-15 by solvent casting method for enhancing the drug release rate and absorption to incessant increase drug bioavailability. Hydroxypropyl cellulose is a synthetic water soluble polymer, form a brittle film with high elastic modulus, thus to improve film forming properties, Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose used in a ration of (1:1 and 2:1) with it. Compatibility of drug and polymers were studied by the IR spectrophotometer, any kind of interaction was not found. All the formulations were evaluated by different evaluation parameters and showed satisfactory results. Batches have uniformity in weight with a thickness of (0.930 mm), (98.3%) drug content and 100% drug release within 6 mins and films pH was reassembled with the pH of saliva. <br />
716-721
181
FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY AND PHENOLIC CONTENT ESTIMATION OF GLINUS OPPOSITIFOLIUS AND SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA
*Chhayakanta Panda, Uma Shankar Mishra, Sujata Mahapatra, Ghanshyam Panigrahi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present research work was carried out to investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of the whole plant of Glinus oppositifolius (MEGO) and leaves of Sesbania grandiflora (MESG). The therapeutic effects of tannins and flavonoids can be largely attributed to their antioxidant properties. The quantitative estimation of phenolic content was measured by using UV-spectrophotometric method. The total phenolic content value of MEGO was 12.2&plusmn;0.12w/w and of MESG was 8.34&plusmn;0.08 % w/w, respectively, and total flavonoid estimation of MEGO and MESG&nbsp; showed the content values of 4.9&plusmn;0.02 % w/w and 1.2&plusmn;0.13 %w/w, respectively, for quercetin and 3.6&plusmn;0.18 % w/w and 1.56&plusmn;0.09 % w/w, respectively, for rutin. The results revealed that these plants have antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of MEGO was found to be more potent than MESG. So finally it indicates that both the plants contains antioxidant substances which can be used for the treatment of oxidative stress related diseases.
722-727
182
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF SOME NEWLY SYNTHESIZED CHALCONES
*Jahirul Islam Talukdar, Monica Kachroo and Rema Razdan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new series of chalcones have been synthesized by Claisen-Schmidt condensation of appropriate acetophenones like N-(4-acetyl-phenyl)-4-methoxy-benzamide [which is synthesized by reacting 4-methoxy-benzoyl chloride with 4-amino acetophenone] and N-(4-acetyl-phenyl)-4-chloro-benzamide, [which is synthesized by reacting 4-chloro-benzoyl chloride with 4-amino acetophenone]&nbsp; with various aldehydes&nbsp; in ethanolic KOH solution. The synthesized compounds were characterized using melting point, TLC, UV, IR, 1HNMR, 13C-NMR and CHN analysis. The compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity by bovin serum albumin assay method ( in vitro ) and carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method ( in vivo ). Among the compounds synthesized, 2, 4-dimethoxy phenyl and 4-ethoxy phenyl derivative exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity.<br /><br />
728-733
183
SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF DULOXETINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND METHYLCOBALAMIN BY UV SPECTROSCOPIC METHOD
*A. S. Shete, P. D. Lade, Sumaiyya J. Inamdar, S. S. Kumbhar, A. P. Mhadeshwar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, accurate and precise UV Spectroscopic method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of Duloxetine Hydrochloride and Methylcoblamin. The overlay spectra of Duloxetine hydrochloride and Methylcoblamin exhibit &lambda; max of 291 nm and 350 nm for Duloxetine hydrochloride and Methylcoblamin in Double distilled water respectively. The drugs obeyed the Beer&rsquo;s law in the range of 8-28&mu;g/ml and 0.6-15&mu;g/ml for Duloxetine hydrochloride and Methylcoblamin with correlation coefficients of 0.998 and 0.999 respectively and it has showed good linearity. The results of analysis were validated by recovery studies. The % recovery was found to be 99.99-100.96 % for Duloxetine hydrochloride and 100.55-101.02 % for Methylcoblamin. LOD and LOQ were found to be 1.278&mu;g/ml, 2.330&mu;g/ml for Duloxetine hydrochloride and 0.949&mu;g/ml, 2.857&mu;g/ml for Methylcoblamin respectively. The %RSD values were less than 2. The method was found to be simple, accurate, precise, economical and reproducible.
734-740
184
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF COLORIMETRY METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF OXCARBAZEPINE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM
*A. S. Shete, P. D. Lade, Snehal S. Kumbhar, A. P. Mhadeshwar, S. J. Inamdar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A colorimetric method has been developed and validated for estimation of Oxcarbazepinein its tablet form. Ferric chloride and potassium ferricyanide were used as the coloring agents, and a yellow green color solution was formed after reaction of the drug with ferric chloride and potassium ferricyanide. The solution absorbance was measured at 735 nm. The linearity range was in the range of 1-6&mu;g/ml. The validation of the new proposed method was carried out on various parameters like linearity, accuracy, precision, selectivity, specificity, robustness, ruggedness, LOD and LOQ.
741-746
185
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ETRAVIRINE IN PURE AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS
*G. Raveendra Babu, A. Lakshmana Rao and J. Venkateswara Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A validated simple, sensitive, specific and precise RP-HPLC method was developed for the determination of Etravirine in pure and pharmaceutical formulations. Method was carried on Hypersil BDS C18 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 &mu; particle size) using phosphate buffer:acetontrile (35:65 v/v) as mobile phase. Detection was carried out by UV at 322 nm. The proposed method obeyed linearity in the range of 20-150 &mu;g/mL and met all specifications as per ICH guidelines. Statistical analysis revealed that this method can be used in routine quality control studies of Etravirine in pure and its pharmaceutical formulations.
747-752
186
NOVEL PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATION OF MIXED SOLVENCY IN THE FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT OF SYRUPS (LIQUID ORAL SOLUTIONS) OF POORLY WATER-SOLUBLE DRUGS
*Yash Maheshwari, D.K Mishra, S.C Mahajan, Prachi Maheshwari, R.K Maheshwari, V. Jain
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Solubilization of poorly water soluble drugs has been a very important issue in screening studies of new chemical entities as well as in formulation research. In the present investigation, mixed-solvency approach has been utilized for solubility enhancement of poorly water-soluble drug, Naproxen and Furosemide (as model drugs). Sixteen blends (having total 40% w/v strength) containing various solubilizers among the commonly used hydrotropes (urea, sodium benzoate and sodium citrate), cosolvents (glycerin, ethanol, propylene glycol, PEG 600 and PEG 400) and water-soluble solids (PEG 4000 and PEG 6000) were made to study the influence on solubility of Naproxen and Furosemide individually. Most of the blends were found to increase the solubility of both drugs. This approach shall prove a boon in pharmaceutical field to develop various formulations of poorly water-soluble drugs by combining various water-soluble excipients in safe concentrations to produce a desirable aqueous solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs. <br />
753-758
187
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF PARACETAMOL AND TAPENTADOL HYDROCHLORIDE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
*Iffath Rizwana, K. Vanitha Prakash, G. Krishna Mohan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, specific and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination Paracetamol and Tapentadol HCl in pharmaceutical dosage form. The column used was Symmetry C18 (4.6 x 150mm, 5&#61549;m) in isocratic mode, with mobile phase containing phosphate buffer-acetonitrile (50:50 v/v) adjusted to pH 3.6 with ortho phosphoric acid. The flow rate was 0.8 mL/ min and effluents were monitored at 243 nm. The retention times of Paracetamol and Tapentadol HCl were found to be 2.206 min and 3.807 min, respectively. The linearity for Paracetamol and Tapentadol HCl were in the range of 100-200 mcg/mL and 15-30 mcg/mL respectively. The recoveries of Paracetamol and Tapentadol Hcl were found to be 98.5% and 98.5%, respectively. The proposed method was validated and successfully applied to the estimation of Paracetamol and Tapentadol Hcl in combined tablet dosage forms.
759-762
188
MUCOADHESIVE MICROSPHERES- A VIRTOUS BIOAVAILABILITY EMBELISHING TOOL
*R. Gowri, N. Narayanan, A. Maheswaran, S. Janarthanan, S. Paulraj, P. Lavanya
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Mucoadhesive drug delivery has versatile potential for efficient drug release because of the properties provided by their small particle size for various diseases. Ex., Helicobacter pylori infection is currently the cause of 75% peptic ulcers. In an effort to augment the anti Helicobacter pylori effect, microspheres reside in the gastrointestinal tract with mucoadhesion mechanism and exhibits sustained release effect over a period of time. Microspheres are the carrier linked drug delivery system in which particle size ranges from 1-1000 &mu;m&nbsp; in diameter having a core of drug and entirely outer layers of polymer as coating material. Due to their short residence time, bioadhesive characteristics can be coupled to microspheres to develop mucoadhesive microspheres. The polymers with excellent mucoadhesive properties and good entrapment efficiency. This review article focusses various aspects of mucoadhesion, theories of mucoadhesion&nbsp;&nbsp; preparation methods and applications along with its future trends. <br />
763-773
189
EVALUATION OF ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF PLANT CHROZOPHORA PLICATA
*Kadiri Sunil kumar, Avanapu Srinivasa Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The herbal medicines derived from various plants extracts are being increasingly utilized to treat a wide variety of clinical diseases1. Besides their action as gastroprotectives, flavonoids also act in healing of gastric ulcers2. The study was designed to investigate the anti-ulcer effect of chloroform extract of Chrozophora plicata leaves (600mg/kg) against experimentally induced ulcer models in albino rats. In the present study, anti-ulcer activity was assessed by using pylorus ligation induced and indomethacin (40mg/kg) induced Ulcer 3models in albino rats. The antiulcer activity was assessed by determining and comparing gastric volume, acidity, ulcer score and ulcer index in control, test extract and standard (ranitidine 10mg/kg) treated rats by using both pylorus ligation and indomethacin induced ulcer models. Pre-treatment of animals with the Chloroform extract of Chrozophora plicata (600mg/kg)) orally significantly reduced formation of ulcers induced by pylorus ligation and indomethacin models. The percentage inhibitions of ulcer with test extract being 60 &plusmn;1.12 % and 57.18 &plusmn; 1.32 % respectively whereas standard ranitidine has shown percentage inhibitions of ulcer to an extent of 100&plusmn; 0.42% and 68.52&plusmn;1.07% in both ulcer models. It is evident from literature that Chrozophora plicata leaves possess flavonoids4. The results obtained indicate that Chrozophora plicata possesses antiulcer principles.
774-778
190
THERAPEUTIC EFFICACY AND NUTRITIONAL POTENTIALITY OF INDIAN BAY LEAF (CINNAMOMUM TAMALA BUCH. - HEM.)
*Sukumar Dandapat, Manoj Kumar, Amit Kumar, M. P. Sinha
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
C. tamala leaves are mainly used for flavouring food and spice due to clove like taste and pepper like odour. The plant leaves are widely used in pharmaceutical preparation because of therapeutic efficacy against various diseases and disorders due to presence of different phytochemicals. The leaves were analysed for ash content, moisture, crude fat, crude fibre, crude carbohydrate, crude protein and different phytochemical content. The results for percentage of ash content, moisture content, crude fibre, carbohydrate, crude fat and protein were 9.6 &plusmn; 1.12, 50.50 &plusmn; 1.0, 30.5 &plusmn; 0.6, 9.5 &plusmn; 0.5, 6.0 &plusmn; 0.5 and&nbsp; 8.5 &plusmn; 0.18 % respectively. The nutritive value was 143.5 &plusmn; 0.53 Kcal/ 100g. The leaf sample was assessed for quantitative and qualitative phytochemical composition. Among the phytochemicals poly phenols was highest (16.7 &plusmn; 0.7 g/100g) and flavonoid content was lowest (1.0 &plusmn; 0.31 g/100g).
779-785
191
ERYTHROPOIETIN (EPO): ROLE IN NEUROPROTECTION/ NEUROREGENRATION AND COGNITION
*Rajwar Navneet, Kothiyal Preeti
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:PunctuationKerning/> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas/> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables/> <w:SnapToGridInCell/> <w:WrapTextWithPunct/> <w:UseAsianBreakRules/> <w:DontGrowAutofit/> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--> <p style="text-align: justify" class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black">The discovery of the broad neuroprotective<span>&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>potential of erythropoietin (EPO), an endogenous hematopoietic growth factor, leaded to the new therapeutic avenues in the treatment of brain diseases. EPO has direct effects on cells of the nervous system that make it a highly attractive candidate drug for neuroprotection/neuroregeneration. EPO expression in the brain is induced by hypoxia. Practically all brain cells are capable of production and release of EPO and expression of its receptor. EPO exerts multifarious protective effects on brain cells. It protects neuronal cells from noxious stimuli such as hypoxia, excess glutamate, serum deprivation or kainic acid exposure in vitro by targeting a variety of mechanisms and involves neuronal, glial and endothelial cell functions. In rodent models of ischemic stroke, EPO reduces infarct volume and improves functional outcome, but beneficial effects have also been observed in animal models of subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. EPO has a convenient therapeutic window upon ischemic stroke and favorable pharmacokinetics. EPO has been found by many investigators to be protective or regenerative and to improve cognitive performance in various rodent models of neurological and psychiatric disease.<span>&nbsp; </span>Results from first therapeutic trials in humans are promising, but will need to be validated in larger trials. This article reviews on the preclinical and clinical work on EPO for the indications neuroprotection/neuroregeneration and cognition.</span></p> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" LatentStyleCount="156"> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} </style> <![endif]-->
785-795
192
THE BENEFICIAL ROLE OF NATURAL POLYPHENOLIC COMPOUNDS AS ANTIOXIDANTS IN ALZHEIMER DISEASE: BIOLOGICAL ACTIONS AND MECHANISMS UNDERPINNING THEIR BENEFICIAL EFFECTS
*Bisht Neha, Kumar Arun, Kothiyal Preeti
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Oxidative stress has been strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer&rsquo;s disease (AD). Mitochondrion is a key player that produces reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondrial dysfunction found in AD patients may amplify the generation of ROS and oxidative stress. Increased ROS can cause damage to protein, lipid and nucleic acids. In recent years, antioxidants- especially those of dietary origin have been suggested as possible agents useful for the prevention and treatment of AD. Continuing research highlights the dynamic capacity of natural polyphenolic compounds to exhibit their antioxidant effect by a number of potential mechanisms. The free radical scavenging, in which the polyphenols can break the free radical chain reaction, as well as suppression of the free radical formation by regulation of enzyme activity or chelating metal ions involved in free radical production. Thus, the antioxidant properties certainly contribute to their neuroprotective effect. This article reviews the role of oxidative stress and the contribution of free radicals in the development of AD, and also discusses antioxidant effects of natural polyphenolic compounds such as green tea catechins, curcumin, resveratrol and their intracellular targets focusing on neuroprotective strategies for AD. <br />
796-806
193
FTIR spectroscopic studies and antimicrobial activity in populations of Eryngium foetidum L.
*Chandrika R, Komal Kumar J, Thara Saraswathi K. J, Deviprasad A. G
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopic studies have been used to investigate the variations in the phytochemical constituents of two diverse populations of Eryngium foetidum L. from India. Based on the FTIR analysis and preliminary phytochemical investigations it was possible to understand the various functional groups and bioactive components present in the methanolic extracts of both populations. The FTIR pattern highlighted sharp peaks for OH, aldehydes and aminoacids in the extracts. Characteristic strong peaks were observed in the fingerprint region confirming the presence of aromatic compounds, alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aliphatic primary amines, phenols, carbohydrates and halogenated compounds. The extracts were also tested for their antimicrobial efficacy against E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and A. faecalis using Disc diffusion assay at various concentrations .It was observed that the extracts showed significant activity against S. aureus and moderate activity for E. coli and P. aeruginosa. <br />
813-818
194
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, ANTI OXIDANT POTENTIAL AND ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF LEUCAS DIFFUSA PLANT EXTRACT
*Ramachandran Somasundaram, Priyanka Vaddadi, Dhanaraju Magharla Dasaratha
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The plants of the genus &lsquo;Leucas&rsquo; have been found to be useful in various diseases. Leucas diffusa (LD) widely distributed throughout India as a weed in cultivated fields, wastelands &amp; roadsides. There is no scientific report published indicating utility of this plant. The present study was performed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities by using hydroxyl radical, reducing power &amp; hydrogen peroxide scavenging abilities and through acetic acid induced vascular permeability model in mice &amp; acetic acid induced colitis in rats significantly. LD (1000 mg/kg, p.o.) presented a significant anti-inflammatory activity towards acetic acid induced vascular permeability model in mice in comparison to Diclofenac sodium(10 mg/kg, s.c.) and acetic acid induced colitis in rats in comparison to 5-ASA. Our findings suggest that, LD contains potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds which will aid us to conduct bioactivity guided isolation &amp; characterization of leading compounds in due course. <br />
819-829
195
SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME NEW 4-SUBSTITUTED-6-(p-AMINOPHENYL)-2-AMINOPYRIDINE-3-CARBONITRILE DERIVATIVES
*K. Srikanth Kumar, B. Jagadeeswara Rao and A. Lakshmana Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
4-Substituted-6-(p-aminophenyl)-2-aminopyridine-3-carbonitrile derivatives were prepared by using 4-amino acetophenone as starting material, which is treated with malononitrile, ammonium acetate and various types of benzaldehyde consists of electron releasing and electron withdrawing groups on it via one-pot reaction by using benzene as solvent. This method provides an envirofriendly, easy workup and gives compounds in high yield. The synthesized 4-substituted-6-(p-aminophenyl)-2-aminopyridine-3-carbonitrile derivatives were characterized by physical properties and spectral studies (IR, 1H NMR &amp; Mass).
830-834
196
LEGAL PROTECTION OF INTELECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS
*R. Suthakaran
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The legal protection of intellectual property has always played an important part in managing intellectual property which is crucial to the industry. The Intellectual Property Protection Act of 2006 is bolstering and increases the government&rsquo;s ability to fight against IP violations as well as to help reduce terror tolerated and criminal enterprises that are proposed as being supposedly funded by piracy. There are several important cases in the country on intellectual property legislation, pertaining to these aspects of the legal scrutiny that are worth noticing. Overall, the purpose of the legislation is to protect any form of intellectual property and original innovation in order to sustain a sense of copyright for original works and creation. <br />
835-836
197
RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF CEFEPIME AND TAZOBACTAM IN MARKETED FORMULATION
*M. Bhavana, T. RamamohanaReddy, M. Sandhya, V. Uma Maheswara Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new precise, accurate, reliable validated method for the determination of Cefepime and Tazobactam has been developed by using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) in pharmaceutical dosage form. Chromatographic separation was carried out by using mobile phase 0.02M Potassium dihydrogen phosphate: Acetonitrile (95:5v/v, pH-3.0 adjusted with Orthophosphoric acid) on Sunfire C18 (50 x 4.6 mm, 5 &micro;) at a flow rate 0.8ml/min with UV detection at 220nm.The retention times for Cefepime and Tazobactam were 2.243 and 4.910 min respectively and both drugs showed good linearity in the range of 250-750 &micro;g/ml and 31.25-93.75 &micro;g/ml. The proposed method has been successfully applied to pharmaceutical formulation and was validated according to ICH guidelines and method showed good precision with percentage relative standard deviation less than 2%. The percentage recovery for Cefepime and Tazobactam was found between 99.80-101.11% and 100.43-101.14% respectively indicating the proposed method was accurate and precise.
837-842
198
DEVELOPMENT OF SURFACTANT FREE NANOPARTICLES BY A SINGLE EMULSION HIGH PRESSURE HOMOGENIZATION TECHNIQUE AND EFFECT OF FORMULATION PARAMETERS ON THE DRUG ENTRAPMENT AND RELEASE
*Jayesh Shivaji Patil, Sunil kumar Yadav, Vinod Jagganathrao mokale, Jitendra Baliram Naik
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of this study was to prepare surfactant free Diclofenac sodium loaded ethyl cellulose nanoparticles by O/W single emulsion solvent evaporation high pressure homogenization technique.In the preparation of O/W single emulsion sodium alginate used as an emulsifying/stabilizing agent. Microparticles of nine different batches at different condition were prepared after that optimized batch was subjected to the high pressure Homogenizer for 3 cycles at 300 bar for the preparation of nanoparticles. The size of the nanoparticles was obtained in the range of 147.7nm to 256.6 nm .The maximum drugs loading of nanoparticles found about 90% and it showed about 66% of drug release in 12 hours. Physicochemical properties of these nanoparticles such as particle size, FESEM, X-RD and FTIR analysis were investigated. No drug-polymer interaction was observed in FTIR. FE-SEM images show that the particles are spherical and nanosized.
843-852
199
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF LAMIVUDINE AND ZIDOVUDINE IN API AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM USING RP-HPLC
*J. Priyanka and P. Anil Kumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A rapid, sensitive and specific RP-HPLC [1-5] method involving UV detection was developed and validated for determination and quantification of Lamivudine and Zidovudine.&nbsp; Chromatography&nbsp;&nbsp; was&nbsp; carried out on Thermo Hypersil BDS, C18,(150 x 4..6 mm,5&#61549;) column&nbsp;&nbsp; using&nbsp; filtered&nbsp; and&nbsp; degassed&nbsp;&nbsp; mixture of&nbsp; Buffer : Methanol : Acetonitrile (70:5:25) as mobile&nbsp; phase&nbsp; at&nbsp; a&nbsp; flow&nbsp; rate&nbsp; of&nbsp; 0.8ml/min and effluent was monitored at 267nm. The method was&nbsp; validated&nbsp; in&nbsp; terms&nbsp; of&nbsp; linearity,&nbsp; precision,&nbsp; accuracy,&nbsp; robustness&nbsp; and&nbsp; specificity,&nbsp; limit of&nbsp; quantification and limit of&nbsp; detection.&nbsp; The&nbsp; assay&nbsp; was&nbsp; linear&nbsp; over&nbsp; the&nbsp; concentration&nbsp; range&nbsp; of&nbsp;&nbsp; Lamivudine&nbsp; and&nbsp; Zidovudine&nbsp;&nbsp; was&nbsp;&nbsp; 37.5&micro;g - 225&micro;g/ml&nbsp; and&nbsp; 75&micro;g&nbsp; to 450&micro;g/ml&nbsp; respectively.&nbsp; Accuracy&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; method was determined through recovery studies by adding&nbsp; known&nbsp; quantities&nbsp; of standard&nbsp; drug&nbsp; to&nbsp; the&nbsp; pre&nbsp; analyzed&nbsp; test solution&nbsp; and&nbsp; was&nbsp; found&nbsp; to be 99.50%-100.7% and 99.9%-100.7%&nbsp;&nbsp; within&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; precision&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; RSD&nbsp; of&nbsp; 1.30&nbsp;&nbsp; and&nbsp;&nbsp; 0.61&nbsp; for&nbsp;&nbsp; Lamivudine and Zidovudine&nbsp; respectively.&nbsp; The method does require only 10 minutes as run time for analysis which prove the adoptability of the method for the routine quality control of the drug. <br />
853-858
200
Dissolution enhancement of Meloxicam Using Liquisolid Technique
*Nishtha Shrivastava, Ritu Priya Mahajan, Alok Sharma, Suresh Chandra Mahajan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The limited solubility of drugs has always been a challenging task for pharmaceutical industries engaged in manufacturing and development of solid dosage forms. To overcome this problem, Liquisolid technique has gained immense popularity as a novel approach in the last decade. The present study deals with the dissolution enhancement of Meloxicam by Liquisolid Technique. An attempt has been made to formulate fast dissolving tablets of Meloxicam, a poorly water soluble drug. The dissolution rate of Meloxicam was compared with the marketed tablet. The results indicated that formulation (F11) containing microcrystalline cellulose as the carrier and aerosil as the coating material in the 20:1 ratio, displayed higher dissolution profile compared to other formulations. The prepared tablets showed good wettability, rapid disintegration, and acceptable dissolution rate compared to the marketed product. It has been observed that liquisolid technique is the most promising way for solubility and dissolution enhancement of Meloxicam. It can be concluded that liquisolid technique resulted in improved dissolution of Meloxicam.
859-866
201
FORMULATION AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF GASTRORETENTIVE BILAYER FLOATING TABLETS OF LOSARTAN POTASSIUM
*Sruthi Buddharaju
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of present study was to formulate and evaluate Gastroretentive bilayer floating tablets of Losartan potassium using direct compression technology. Bilayer floating tablets comprised two layers, i.e. immediate release and controlled release layers. The immediate release layer comprised Crospovidone as a super disintegrant and floating layer comprised Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (SCMC), Metolose SR and Sodium alginate as the release retarding polymers. Sodium bicarbonate was used as a gas generating agent. The powder blends were evaluated for pre-compression parameters. Compressed tablets were further evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, dimensions, Drug Content Uniformity, In-vitro buoyancy and dissolution studies. All the formulations showed good results which were compliance with pharmacopoeial standards. In-vitro dissolution studies were performed in USP-XXIII dissolution test apparatus, type II (paddle method) in 1.2pH buffer. More than 99% Losartan potassium of was released from the immediate release layer within 30 min. The results of dissolution studies indicated that formulation BFT8 (drug to polymer[SCMC] 1:0.25), the most successful of the study, exhibited drug release of approximately 98% at 12th hour with more than 12h buoyancy with floating lag time of 93seconds. An increase in drug release was observed on decreasing polymer ratio. The drug release mechanism of all the formulations was found to be Fickian diffusion-controlled drug release.
867-874
202
FORMULATION AND INVITRO EVALLUATION OF NANOSUSPENSION OF GLIMEPIRIDE
*Ethiraj T, Sujitha R, Ganesan V
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present research work is an attempt to develop and evaluate Nanosuspension of Glimepiride in order to improve the solubility and bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs. Nanosuspensions of Glimepiride were developed with different ratios of Urea and PVP combinations by nanoprecipitation technique. Nanoprecipitation method being simple and less sophisticated was optimized for the preparation of nanosuspension. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to confirm compatibility and to rule out any possible interactions between drug and carriers. Four formulations (F1, F2, F3 and F4) consisting PVP and urea in the ratios of 1:3 and 1:6 respectively were prepared. All formulations were prepared using poloxamer as stabilizer, mixture of drug and acetone as organic phase and distilled water containing carriers as aqueous phase. . Physicochemical characteristics of nanosuspension in terms of size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency (% EE) and in vitro drug release were found within their acceptable ranges. Differential scanning calorimetry studies provided evidence that enhancement in solubility of drug resulted due to change in crystallinity of drug within the formulation. Data of in vitro release from nanosuspensions were fit in to different equations and kinetic models to explain release kinetics. <br />
875-882
203
POTENTIAL HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECT AND ANTIOXIDANT ROLE OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF MORINDA TINCTORIA IN CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS
Isha I. Sait, Jyoti Harindran, A. Abdul Vahab, Jeena J. L, Nasli S. Jolly John
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present work examines the protective mechanisms of methanol extract of Morinda tinctoria in carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rats. Rats are treated with carbon tetrachloride at the dose of 1 ml/kg body weight intraperitonially once every 72 hrs for 14 days. The hepatoprotective activity of methanol extract of Morinda tinctoria was evaluated by measuring levels of serum marker enzymes like serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The serum levels of total protein and bilirubin were also estimated. The histological studies were also carried out to support the above parameters. Administration of extract (400and 800 mg/kg) significantly (p&lt; 0.05) prevented CCl4-induced elevation of levels of serum GPT, GOT, ALP, and bilirubin. The results are comparable with standard drug silymarin. A comparative histopathological study of liver exhibited almost normal architecture, as compared to CCl4 treated control group. These data suggest that the methanol extract of Morinda tinctoria may act as a hepatoprotective and antioxidant agent.
363-368
204
EVALUATION OF ANTI-BACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF PLANT SESBANIA SESBAN
Kumar Sandeep, Bajwa Baljinder Singh and Kumar Narinder
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The genus Sesbania sesban contains about 50 spieces, the majority of which are annuals. The greatest spieces diversity occurs in Africa with 33 spieces. The spieces Sesbania sesban belongs to sub-family Papilionoidea of the family Leguminosae. It is a small perennial tree with woody stems, yellow flowers and linear pods . Sesbania sesban is very common throughout Africa and in asian countries like India, Malaysia, Indonesia and Phillipines. Campesterol, &szlig;-sitosterol, Cyanidine, Delphinidin glycosides, a-Keto glutaric, Oxaloacetic and &nbsp; &nbsp; pyruvic acids, Oleanolic acid, saponins, Palmitic acid, Stearic acid, Oleic acid, Linoleic acid and Linolenic acid are reported in Whole plant. Cyanidin and Delphinidin glycosides, Flavonols are reported in flowers. The plant has been reported to possess various activities such as anti-inflammatory activity, antinociceptive activity, antidiabetic activity, antifertility activity and antioxidant activity. The present study was designed to study the anti-bacterial activity of Sesbania sesban. The extracts of Sesbania sesban stem were prepared. Soxhlet extraction was carried out by petroleum ether (60-80&deg;C), chloroform, hexane, methanol, ethanol and then distilled water. Plant is subjected to antimicrobial study. Chloroform and methanol extracts of stem of Sesbania sesban at a concentration of 25 mg/ml were equally inhibit P. aeruginosa after 48 hrs. Both chloroform and methanol extracts at a concentration of 100 mg/ml were more effective against B. subtilis than other two bacterial strains after 48 hrs. No antibacterial activity was observed for pet ether ethanol and water extracts in a range from 25 mg/ml to 100 mg/ml.
386-396
205
FREE RADICAL SCAVANGING ACTIVITY OF LEAVES OF CINNAMOMUM CAMPHORA
Sharma Ankita, Sati Sushil Chandra, Rawat Suman, Preeti
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study is done on leaves extract of Cinnamomum Camphora. Extraction of leaves of Cinnamomum Camphora yielded 10.12% of Pet.Ether extract, 13.60% of Chloroform extract, 10.59% of Acetone extract and 17.02% of methanol extract. Methanol extract of Cinnamomum camphora leaves showed maximum antioxidant activity in comparison to all extracts using DPPH method. The concentration of 600 &micro;g/ml of methanol extract showed 91.92% anti-oxidant activity in comparison to all extracts. Acetone showed 84.76% . Both Pet.Ether and Chloroform extracts showed weak anti-oxidant activity. Ascorbic acid was used as a standard &nbsp;for comparison to extracts which showed 96% activity.
407-409
206
EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ARISTOLOCHIA KRYSAGATHRA (ARISTOLOCHIACEAE)- AN IMPORTANT MEDICINAL HERB
Jegadeeswari P, Nishanthini A, Muthukumarasamy S, Mohan VR
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Antioxidant activity of petroleum ether, benzene, ethyl acetate, methanol and ethanol extracts of the whole plant of Aristolochia krysagathra have been tested using various antioxidant model systems viz, DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide, ABTS and reducing power. Methanol extract of Aristolochia krysagathra is found to possess higher DPPH hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity. Methanol and ethanol extracts of Aristolochia krysagathra exhibited highest ABTS radical cation scavenging activity. Methanol extract of whole plant of Aristolochia krysagathra showed the highest reducing ability. This study indicates significant free radical scavenging potential of Aristolochia krysagathra whole plant which can be exploited for the treatment of various free radical mediated ailments.
410-416
207
IMPROVED RELEASE ORAL DRUG DELIVERY OF METAXALONE
N. Waman, R. Ajage, P. N. Kendre, S.B.Kasture, Veena Kasture
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Metaxalone is BCS class II drug having low solubility and high permeability. The solubility and bioavailability of poorly soluble drug was increased by designing microemulsion based drug delivery system of Metaxalone for oral drug administration. The microemulsion was prepared using Tween 80, PEG-400 as surfactant and cosurfactant, sesame and castor oil and water .The formulation was evaluated for globule size, viscosity, RI, pH, conductance, % transmittance and % drug content. The in-vitro intestinal drug diffusion was carried using Frantz diffusion cell and in-vivo drug activity was measured by using animal model. The microemulsions were transparent; particle size was in the range of 45.39 - 271 nm. The viscosity lies between 88 and 95.5cps, pH was found to be 8.12 - 8.17. The Formulated microemulsion had better drug permeation as compared to the pure drug and its marketed dosage form, had good muscle relaxant activity in mice. Study concluded that Metaxalone in microemulsion form exhibited increased solubility and improved drug release.
417-424
208
IRON OVER LOAD INDUCED LIVER TOXICITY OF AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT OF CARICA PAPAYA IN RATS
Balakrishna V, Srikanth G, Ajay kumar Sarabu, Thippani Maneshwar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The leaf extract of Carica papaya have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common disorders like neurodegenerative diseases, cardio vascular diseases, cancer. In the present investigation, the aqueous leaf extract of C.papaya was evaluated for antioxidant activity in iron over load induced liver toxicity. For the evaluation of iron over load liver toxicity method was daily treatment of C.papaya extract on the 5th day iron load was induced. The animals were sacrificed by light ether anesthesia and it was dissected .Tissue homogenate and blood samples were assess the SGOT, ALP, and LPO, Reduced glutathione, Protein & Catalase in normal and iron over load groups. The daily administration of aqueous leaf extract of C.papaya at doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight to iron over load liver toxicity methods were significantly reduced in a dose dependent manner. However, no change observed in the normal animals at all the doses studied. The extract also produced significant reduction of hydroxyl radicals in comparison to ascorbic acid in a dose dependent manner. The result have shown that the aqueous extract of the Leaf of Carica papaya  possesses antioxidant properties, supported by the decrease in lipid peroxidation and increase in the reduced glutathione and catalase activity in in-vivo method. Such antioxidant activity of Carica papaya might be responsible for its importance in traditional medicine for the treatment of various disorders.
425-430
209
HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF AREAL PARTS (EXCEPT FRUITS) OF CICER ARIETINUM AGAINST CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS
M. Sri Ramachandra, A. Srinivasa Rao, S. Shobha Rani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of pet ether, methanol and aqueous extracts of aerial parts (except fruites) of Cicer arietinum L against ccl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The phytochemical investigations of these extracts showed presence of carbohydrates, proteins, phenols and flavanoids. LD50 values of all extracts were determined. The extracts did not produce any mortality even at 2000 mg/kg. Hepatotoxicity was induced in wister rats weighing 120-150 gm by oral administration of carbon tetra chloride (CCL4 1ml/kg/day 20days) in 1ml olive oil per day. The plant extracts were administered to the experimental rats (200 and 400 mg/kg/d p.o for 20days). The Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of these extracts was evaluated by liver function biochemical parameters (serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione) and histopathological studies of liver. Pre-treatment of the rats with petroleum ether, methanol and aqueous extract prior to CCL4 administration caused a significant reduction in the values of &nbsp;SGOT, SGPT, SALP, LPO, total bilirubin and significant increase in &nbsp; SOD, CAT, GSH (P&lt;0.01) almost comparable to the silymarin. The hepatoprotective activity was confirmed by histopathological examination of the liver tissue of control and treated animals. Histology of liver sections of the animals treated with the extracts showed the presence of normal hepatic cords, absence of necrosis and fatty infiltration which further evidence the hepatoprotective activity.
431-436
210
SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF NOVEL ISATIN SUBSTITUTED IMIDAZOLINE DERIVATIVES
T. Maneshwar, N. Vijetha, V. Balakrishna, Ch. Vijay Kumar, M. Suresh
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Novel Isatin substituted Imidazole derivatives have been synthesized and screened for anthelmintic activity. Literature revealed that vast majority of Isatin and imidazole compounds are known to possess pharmacologically proven therapeutic potentials.  Isatine substituted 5-Oxo-imidazoline derivatives were synthesized from 1,3-oxazole-5-ones which were synthesized from the  benzoyl glycine by Erlynmayer synthesis. These 5-oxazoline compounds upon condensation with isatine semicarbazide, it formed isatine substituted 5-oxo-imidazoline derivatives (3a-3j). All compounds have been characterised using IR, 1H NMR and Mass spectral data and have been evaluated for their antmelmintic activity and Albendazole was used as a standard drug.
437-441
211
DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF VALSARTAN GASTRORETENTIVE SUSTAINED RELEASED TABLETS
Vishnu P, K. Naveen Babu, M. Sunitha Reddy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Valsartan, an angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB) widely prescribed in variety of cardiac conditions like hypertension, diabetic nephropathy and heart failure. The biological half-life is 3-6 hours and the maximum absorption is at initial part of gastro intestinal tract. In the present study Valsartan floating tablets were prepared by wet granulation method using non effervescence technique. The tablets were formulated using IPA as granulating fluid with binder PVP-k30 and employing polymers like HPMC K15M, HPMC K100M and EC. The prepared floating tablets were evaluated for various physicochemical parameters. The in-vitro drug release pattern of Valsartan floating tablets was fitted to different kinetic models which showed highest regression for zero order kinetics with Higuchi mechanism. Out of all formulations the one prepared with EC in granulation fluid and combination of different grades of HPMC was optimized (VF11) based on desired sustained release time (12hrs) followed by acceptable swelling and floating properties. The effect of PH on swelling index and floating properties of optimized formulation (VF11) were also investigated, and the study revealed that there are no significant changes on swelling index and floating properties.
442-447
212
SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SOME NEW CHALCONES
Padma R, Aruna R, E Mounika, I. Manjusha and B Soniya
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In this work, new substituted chalcones (1-6) were prepared by reacting 4-Methoxy acetophenone with the corresponding substituted aromatic aldehydes in the presence of methanolic potassium hydroxide solution at room temperature.Some of the compounds synthesized from methoxy, chloro, Dimethlyamino derivatives showed moderate antibacterial activity at 0.2% concentration. These compounds may show more antibacterial activity at higher concentrations.
241-245
213
SIMULTANEOUS QUANTIFICATION OF RISPERIDONE AND ESCITALOPRAM IN HUMAN PLASMA BY LC-MS/MS: APPLICATION TO A PHARMACOKINETIC STUDY
Pallavi Alegete, Prasad Kancherla, Saeed S. Albaseer, and Sathyanarayana Boodida
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A solid phase extraction method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of risperidone and escitalopram in human plasma by a suitable ultra-performance liquid chromatographic / tandem mass spectrometric assay (LC-MS/MS) .Resperidone-D4 was used as an internal standard. The method involves simple isocratic chromatographic conditions at a flow rate of 0.400 mL min-1. Samples were separated on X-terra RP8 column (50 mm × 4.6, 5µm) in a shorter run time of only 2.0 min using a mobile phase mixture of 95:5 v/v (acetonitrile : ammonium acetate) buffer 5mM, pH 5.0±0.05). Calibration plots were linear (r2 0.99) over the concentration range of 0.050 to 26 ng mL-1 for risperidone and 0.100 to 51 ng mL-1 for escitalopram. The overall recoveries for risperidone and escitalopram were 76.88% and 81.14%, respectively. Precision was 2.9%, 5.07% (intra-day) and 4.13%, 6.43% (inter-day) for risperidone and escitalopram, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of human plasma.
246-256
214
PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF GLORIOSA SUPERBA LINN. IN LEAD INDUCED NEUROTOXICITY IN RATS
V. Uma Rani, M. Sudhakar, A. Ramesh, B.V.S.Lakshmi, Yengala Srinivas
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In the present study, tubers of Gloriosa superba Linn (Liliaceae) was selected for evaluating the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Gloriosa superba linn in lead induced neurotoxicity in rats. Thirty six wistar rats (150-200g) were selected and divided into six groups of six in each. Group I (normal control) received distilled water, group II-lead nitrate (10 mg/kg, p.o.), group III-lead nitrate + vitamin E (10 mg/kg, p.o. + 100 mg/kg, p.o.), group IV-lead nitrate + HEGS (10 mg/kg, p.o. + 50 mg/kg, p.o.), group V-lead nitrate + HEGS (10 mg/kg, p.o. + 100 mg/kg, p.o.), group VI-lead nitrate + HEGS (10 mg/kg, p.o. + 200 mg/kg, p.o.) experiment was carried out for 21 days. At end of the experiment various behavioral, biochemical and histopathological assessments were carried out. The animals showed increase in transfer latencies indicating learning and memory implairment in lead control group, but administration of hydroalcoholic extract of Gloriosa superba Linn decreased the transfer latencies, strengthened its memory improvement action in drug treated animals.Hence showed decrease in muscle strength measured by rota-rod test whereas, in hydroalcoholic extract of Gloriosa superba linn treated group there was improvement in muscle strength. The locomotor activity assessed by actophotometer and open field test was decreased in lead nitrate group compared with hydroalcoholic extract of Gloriosa superba Linn treated group. Biochemical analysis of brain revealed that the chronic administration of lead nitrate significantly increased lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione reductase (GR), an index of oxidative stress process. Administration of hydroalcoholic extract of Gloriosa superba Linn attenuated the lipid peroxidation and reversed the decreased brain CAT and GSH levels. Lead exposed rats showed increased levels of various serum parameters like glucose, ALT, ALP, TG and TC. Lead toxicity also leads to alteration in acetylcholinesterase levels, might have caused neurobehavioral changes which was measured by the change in acetylcholinesterase activity but prior administration of hydroalcoholic extract of Gloriosa superba Linn ahead of lead nitrate ameliorated the change. There was marked changes at the subcellular level which were observed by histopathology studies in lead treated group and better improvement in these changes was observed in hydroalcoholic extract of Gloriosa superba Linn treated group. Therefore hydroalcoholic extract of Gloriosa superba Linn helps to combat the oxidative stress produced by the accumulation of lead in the body.
257-266
215
STABILITY INDICATING METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE ESTIMATION OF RESIDUE OF ABIRATERONE BY HPLC
M. Ramesh Babu, V Umamaheswara Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The purpose of the investigation was to develop a new RP-HPLC Method for estimation of Abiraterone in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Chromatography was carried out on an Symmetry shield RP-18, 250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5µm with a isocratic mobile phase composed of Buffer: mixture of solvent in the ratio of 10:90 % v/v (mixture of solvent of solvents in the ratio of Acetonitrile and Water in the ratio of 90:10 v/v) at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. The column temperature was maintained at 40°C and the detection was carried out using a PDA detector at 252 nm. Validation parameters such as system suitability, linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), Stability of sample and standard stock solutions and robustness were studied as reported in the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The retention time for Abiraterone was 7.20 min. The percentage recovery of Abiraterone was 101.65%. The relative standard deviation for assay of tablet was found to be less than 2%. The Method was fast, accurate, precise and sensitive hence it can be employed for routine quality control of tablets containing drugs in quality control laboratories and pharmaceutical industries.
267-276
216
SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ATAZANAVIR AND RITONAVIR IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY HPTLC METHOD
Madhusudhanareddy Induri, Bhagavan Raju Mantripragada and Rajendra Prasad Yejella
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, sensitive and rapid high performance thin layer chromatographic method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of atazanavir and ritonavir in pharmaceutical formulations. The chromatographic development was carried out on HPTLC plates pre-coated with silica gel 60G F254 using a mixture of toluene: ethyl acetate: 0.1% formic acid in the ratio of 6.0:4.0:1.0 v/v as mobile phase. The calibration curve was found to be linear over the concentration range of 150-900 ng/spot for ATV and 50-300 ng/spot for RTV with a regression coefficient for both analytes were greater than 0.999. The %RSD values for intra-day and inter-day variation were not more than 2.0. The method has demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity. The method is new, simple and economic for routine estimation of atazanavir and ritonavir in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation to help the industries as well as researchers for their sensitive determination of atazanavir and ritonavir rapidly at low cost in routine analysis.
219-224
217
In vitro and In vivo drug-drug interaction between Sitagliptin phosphate and Atenolol
Md. Mosarraf Hossen, Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Atiqur Rahman, Kazi Ashfak Ahmed Chowdhury, Mohammed Emranul Huq, Nirjhar Das, Md. Shalah Uddin Pasha, Mohammed Aktar Sayeed, Abul Hasanat
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of the present study to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo complexation nature and strength of complex which may be formed due to interaction between sitagliptin phosphate and atenolol. The interaction of sitagliptin phosphate and atenolol has been studied in aqueous system at a fixed temperature (370C) at both gastric pH (pH 1.2 and pH 3.2) and intestinal pH (pH 6.8) by using Job’s method of continuous variation and Ardon’s method. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was used to identify in vivo DDI in mice. From spectrophotometric study, sitagliptin phosphate and atenolol give different spectra when sitagliptin phosphate mixed with atenolol in 1:1 ratio. The intensity of the spectra of sitagliptin phosphate slightly changes due to interaction. The jobs plot was obtained by plotting absorbance difference against the mole fraction of the each drug at pH 1.2, pH 3.2 and pH 6.8. When the spectra of pure sitagliptin phosphate and atenolol were compared with 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1 mixture, there was a change observed which indicate the formation of 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1 complexes of sitagliptin phosphate with atenolol. The values of stability constant is more than one at al pH (1.2, 3.2 and 6.8), which is the indication of strong complex. The stability constant values are 1.2073, 1.1839 and 1.2075 respectively. From the in vivo observation of Oral glucose tolerance test, at 1:1 complex, blood glucose level decrease (13.88%) less compared to Sitagliptin phosphate (22.22%) significantly. Complex (1:1) showed different activity rather than pure sitagliptin phosphate treatment due to complexation. Therefore, it can be concluded that a careful consideration is needed during concurrent administration of Sitagliptin phosphate with Atenolol.
283-291
218
Development and Validation of a stability indicating RP-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of Telmisartan, Chlorthalidone and Cilnidipine in pharmaceutical combined dosage forms
Mathews Bommella, Ramisetti Nageswara Rao, Priyanka Peddi, Mukkanti Khagga, Sarbani pal
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The study describes development and subsequent validation of a stability indicating reverse-phase HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of the Telmisartan, Chlorthalidone and Cilnidipine in combined solid dosage forms using RP-HPLC. Separation was accomplished on Kromasil 250 x 4.6 mm, 5mm C18 column using 0.1% OPA buffer and acetonitrile (57:43 v/v) as mobile phase pumped through at a flow rate of 1.2 ml/min at 30°C. Optimized wavelength was 238nm. Retention time of Telmisartan, Chlorthalidone and Cilnidipine were found to be 3.106min, 2.573min and 3.924 min respectively. %RSD of the Telmisartan, Chlorthalidone and Cilnidipine were found to be 0.87, 0.96 and 0.94 respectively. % recovery was obtained as 100.18%, 100.06% and 100.13% for Telmisartan, Chlorthalidone and Cilnidipine respectively. The proposed method also proved to be suitable as a rapid and reliable quality control method.
299-311
219
Anthocyanin diversity in osbeckia l. Species from munnar hills
Bosco Lawarence and K Murugan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Melastomataceae family is known for colours. The members possess diverse polyphenolic compounds. The major constituents of this family belong to terpenoids, simple phenolics, quinones, lignans, glycosides, tannins or hydrolyzable tannin oligomers of molecular weights up to 4600 Da, and flavonoids and anthocyanins. Anthocyanin show many biological potentialities including food colourant. Therefore, the present study aims to unravel diversity of Osbeckia, viz. species along Munnar hills and also to analyze their anthocyanin content. Six species and three varieties of O. aspera were collected i.e., O. gracilis, O. wynadensis, O. leschenaultiana O. aspera var. aspera, O. aspera var. travancorica, Osbseckia aspera (L.) var. wightiana, Osbeckia reticulata, Osbeckia virgata. A taxonomic key was prepared for the identification of these species and the germ plasm was maintained in the garden as part of conservation. Anthocyanin content showed remarkable variations both in leaves and flowers among the species. Highest level was noticed with Osbseckia aspera (L.) var. wightiana and Osbeckia reticulata. Habitat of the plant also influences the production of anthocyanins, red or blue coloured pigments. The abiotic stress induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis has evaluated only on a small number of species. In order to meet the demand for this natural product, it’s essential to evaluate anthocyanin biosynthesis in terms of their habitat. Thus, further studies are planned in terms of in vitro culture, elucidation of anthocyanin and its fractionation from Osbseckia aspera (L.) var. wightiana and Osbeckia reticulata.
33-37
220
Development and validation of RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous estimation of naproxen sodium and esomeprazole magnesium in pharmaceutical tablet dosage form
Srinivas Ampati, SunithaLagishetti, Agaiah Goud Bairi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
An isocratic RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the Simultaneous estimation of Naproxen sodium and Esomeprazole magnesium trihydrate in Pharmaceutical tablet dosage form. The separation was achieved by using a reversed-phase C18column(Thermo eletrole, ODS, 250mm × 4.6 mm i.d, 5μm) at ambient temperature with mobile phase consisting of Phosphate buffer (pH adjust to 3.8using OPA): Acetonitrile : Methanol (30:50:20v/v). The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min. Detection was carried out at a wavelength of 220 nm. Retention time of Naproxen sodium and Esomeprazole magnesium trihydrate were found tobe2.417 and 3.903min respectively. The proposed method was validated for selectivity, precision, linearity and accuracy. The assay method was found to be linear from 75-175µg/ml and 3-7µg/ml for Naproxen sodium and Esomeprazole magnesium trihydrate respectively. All validation parameters were within the acceptable range. The developed method was successfully applied to estimate the amount of Naproxen sodium and Esomeprazole magnesium trihydrate in Pharmaceutical tablet dosage form.
95-104
221
A RAPID LC–MS/MS ASSAY FOR PITAVASTATIN IN HUMAN PLASMA BY USING SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE AND ITS APPLICATION TO A PHARMACOKINETIC STUDY
Boligarla Gopi Kalyan Kumar, Nageswara Rao Pilli, Babu Rao Bhukya and N. Y. Sreedhar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric (LC–MS/MS) assay method has been developed and fully validated for the quantitative determination of pitavastatin in human plasma. A pitavastatin stable labeled isotope (pitavastatin d4) was used as an internal standard. Analyte and the internal standard were extracted from human plasma via solid phase extraction technique. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column by using a mixture of acetonitrile–0.1% formic acid (90:10, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.85 mL/min. The calibration curve obtained was linear (r 2 0.99) over the concentration range of 0.05–160 ng/mL. Method validation was performed as per FDA guidelines and the results met the acceptance criteria. A run time of 1.5 min for each sample made it possible to analyze more than 450 plasma samples per day. The proposed method was found to be applicable to clinical studies.
95-105
222
Stability indicating HPLC method for the determination of Dacarbazine in pharmaceutical dosage form
M.L. Lal Prasanth, Sridhar Siddiraju
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, rapid, and precise stability indicating HPLC method is developed for the quantitative determination of dacarbazine in pharmaceutical dosage form. The chromatographic separation of dacarbazine was achieved with an agilent eclipse XDB C18, 150 x 4.6 mm, 5m particle size analytical column using buffer and acetonitrile taken in 96:4%v/v and the response was detected at 323nm by using PDA detector. The retention time was found to be 4.333. Dacarbazine drug substance was exposed to thermal, photolytic, hydrolytic, and oxidative stress conditions, and the stressed samples were analyzed by the proposed method. Peak homogeneity data of dacarbazine is obtained by photodiode array detector in the stressed sample chromatograms, demonstrating the specificity of the method for its estimation in presence of degradation product. The described method shows excellent linearity over a range of 25–150 μg/mL. The correlation coefficient for dacarbazine was found to be 0.9999. The relative standard deviation for six measurements in two sets of dacarbazine in injection is always less than 2%. The proposed method was found to be suitable and accurate for quantitative determination and stability study of dacarbazine in pharmaceutical preparations.
5-12
223
Formulation and evaluation of fairness serum using polyherbal extracts
Shan Sasidharan, Pyarry Joseph, Junise
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Cosmetic Serum is a highly concentrated product based on water or oil. When using concentrates we get not only a quick cosmetic effect, but also psychological satisfaction after the treatment because the result will be seen practically immediately. Serum has a property of rapid absorption and ability to penetrate into the deeper layers of the skin, together with its non-greasy finish and intensive formula with a very high concentration of active substances. Based on these properties, the aim of this work was to formulate a fairness serum using poly herbal extracts. The objective was to carry out extraction, and to study the phyto-constituents responsible for the fairness action in the poly herbal extract and to evaluate various physicochemical and biological properties of the formulation. The fairness Serum has a super-special blend of active natural ingredients to penetrate skin‟s epidermis and color cells, resulting in fair complexion and skin tone in addition. It has skin smoothing ingredients to improve skin texture and leaves skin soft, fair and silky smooth. It is made of extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra, Crocus sativus, Rice branand olive oil in addition. The variousphysical, chemical and biological evaluations were done. The formulationwas found to be of good spreadability and was free from heavy metals. Skin irritation studies proved that it was non-sensitizing and free to use. It is intended to provide fairness action within a week.
105-112
224
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A STABILITY-INDICATING HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF PAROXETINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND CLONAZEPAM IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
Geetharam Yanamadala, Praveen Srikumar.P
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The study describes development and subsequent validation of a stability indicating reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous estimation of Paroxetine hydrochloride and clonazepam in tablet dosage forms. A reversed-phase Kromasil ,C18, (150mm x 4.6 mm, particle size) column with mobile phase consisting of Acetonitrile and 0.1 % Orthophosphoric acid buffer 60:40 (v/v) was used. The flow rate was 1.2 mL min-1 and effluents were monitored at 260 nm. The retention times (tR) of Paroxetine and clonazepam were found to be 3.46 min and 4.55 min, respectively. The method was validated in terms of linearity, range, specificity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ). The linearity for both the drugs was found in the range of 125-750 µg/ml and 2.5-15 µg/ml for Paroxetine and clonazepam. The % recoveries of Paroxetine hydrochloride and clonazepam were found to be 99.4 -100.6 and 98.1-101.0 respectively. The utility of the procedure is verified by its application to marketed formulations that were subjected to accelerated degradation studies. The method distinctly separated the drug and degradation products even in actual samples. The products formed in marketed tablet dosage forms are similar to those formed during stress studies.
448-457
225
A VALIDATED STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF ALOGLIPTINE AND PIOGLITAZONE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS
B. Neelima, P. Ravi Kumar, V. Hima Bindu and Y. Rajendra Prasad
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The proposed study, a new stability- indicating RP-HPLC method has been developed for estimation of Alogliptin and Pioglitazone in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. The present method was a sensitive, precise, and accurate RP-HPLC method for the analysis of Alogliptin and Pioglitazone. To optimize the mobile phase, various combinations of buffer and organic solvents were used on Hypersil BDS C18 column. Then the mobile phase containing a mixture of Phosphate Buffer: Acetonitrile in the ratio of 45:55 % v/v was selected at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min for developing the method and the peaks with good shape and resolution were found resulting in short retention time, baseline stability and minimum noise. The retention times of Alogliptine and Pioglitazone were found to be 3.42 and 5.24 min respectively. Quantitative linearity was obeyed in the concentration range of 31-187 and 75-450 µg/mL of Alogliptin and Pioglitazone respectively. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 0.399 µg/mL and 1.21µg/mL (ALO); 0.516 µg/ mL and 1.565 µg/mL (PIO) respectively, which indicates the sensitivity of the method. The high percentage recovery indicates that the proposed method is highly accurate. No interfering peaks were found in the chromatogram indicating that excipients used in tablet formulations did not interfere with the estimation of the drugs by the proposed HPLC method.
458-464
226
DOCKING STUDIES OF SWINE FLU NEURAMINIDASE WITH HERBAL COMPOUNDS
Jayasree Ganugapati , Archana Battu, Aishwarya Aare
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Swine Flu is a seasonal viral infectious disease caused due to H1N1. The aim of the present study is to identify natural compounds found in dietary resources that can inhibit neuraminidase, a protein that plays a crucial role in the H1N1 infection and invasion into the human host tissues. The X-Ray Crystallographic structure of the protein Neuraminidase was retrieved from RCSB -PDB and 3D structures of the selected ligands were obtained from NCBI PubChem in SDF format. Lipinski Rule was analyzed using Mol inspiration. Docking studies were performed using ARGUSLAB, AUTODOCK 4.0 and AUTODOCK VINA to study the interactions of the protein with the ligands. The compounds having affinity towards the protein’s active site region were identified. Docking results indicate that all the six compounds interact with neuraminidase with varied binding energies. From our observations It can be concluded that the six compounds selected for analysis bind with neuraminidase and our further studies suggest that the activity of neuraminidase can be inhibited by Curcumin and Gingerol since they have a better binding energy and interact with active site residues.
69-73
227
ROLE OF SHORT TERM CAMPAIGNS IN BOOSTING UP SALES, WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON INDIAN PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET
Aravinda Pai, G.K.Sudhakar, Venkatesh Kamath, Vasudev Pai
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In recent years, strategic marketing has played an important role in the process of pharmaceutical marketing. Due to increase in the number of pharmaceutical companies as well as rapidly growing product portfolio, it is essential to look for innovative strategies periodically to ensure competitiveness in the market place. Strategies may look different for different segments of markets because some segments may depend only on concept selling. Nowadays, particularly in the Indian pharmaceutical market, we see more than 100 brands competing for a single drug and price also playing an important role. Since patient is an indirect customer for a pharmaceutical company, it is the discretion of a physician to select particular brand for a drug (1). In this scenario, short term campaigns can be effective in brand conversions and to boost up sales. In the present article a brief overview will be given on short term campaigns conducted by different pharmaceutical companies and the output in the form of incremental sales.
74-76
228
A SENSITIVE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY–TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRIC ASSAY FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ARTEMETHER AND ITS ACTIVE METABOLITE DIHYDROARTEMISININ IN HUMAN PLASMA
Bhanu Prakash Tummuru, Nageswara Rao Pilli, Babu Rao Bhukya and Gowri Shankar D
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This paper describes a simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography / tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) assay method for the simultaneous quantification of artemether and its active metabolite, dihydroartemisinin in human plasma samples. Nevirapine was used as an internal standard. Analytes and the internal standard were extracted from 200 µL of human plasma via liquid-liquid extraction technique using tert-butyl methyl ether. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column by using a mixture of methanol and 5mM ammonium acetate buffer (90:10, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.85 mL/min. The calibration curve obtained were linear (r 2 >= 0.99) over the concentration range of 1.00-204.50 ng/mL for artemether and 0.51-161.52 ng/mL for dihydroartemisinin. Method validation was performed as per US FDA guidelines and the results met the acceptance criteria. A run time of 3.5 min for each sample made it possible to analyze more number of plasma samples per day. The proposed method can be applicable to clinical studies in humans.
77-85
229
ISOLATION, QUANTIFICATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF PHYTOSTEROLS FROM DIFFERENT PARTS OF CASSIA PUMILA LAMK
Ankita Yadav, Richa Bhardwaj and R. A. Sharma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Cassia species have been of keen interest in phytochemical and pharmacological research due to their excellent medicinal values. Aim of this study is to identify and characterize the bioactive principles from the different parts of Cassia pumila. Four compounds were isolated and purified and the structures were determined as β-sitosterol, lanosterol, campersterol, stigmasterol by analysis of physical, chemical and spectral characterstics (IR,NMR). Present study shows the presence of various concentrations of phytosterols in different plant parts of C. pumila. The higher level of total phytosterols was measured in pods of C. pumila (1.15 mg/g dw) and lowest in flowers (0.38mg/gdw).The highest level of β-sitosterol and lanosterol, was found highest in pods(0.23mg/gdw) and 0.24mg/gdw) respectively, whereas highest level of campersterol was found in leaves(0.24mg/gdw). The isolated phytosterols were effective against all test bacteria and fungi. β-sitosterol was more active against fungi and bacteria and their MIC value was recorded 2 X 103 mg/disc while the MIC value of 3X 103 mg/disc was recorded for lanosterol, Campersterol and Stigmasterol.
86-92
230
PREPARATION OF NANOPARTICLES OF CANDESARTAN CILEXETIL BY IONOTROPIC GELATION TECHNIQUE AND THEIR EVALUATION
Shilpa Bhilegaonkar, Ram Gaud
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Candesartan cilexetil is a poorly soluble antihypertensive agent with low bioavailability. It is a prodrug which converts into active drug candesartan with hydrolysis in GIT.Ion gelation technique is utilized for delivery of protein and peptide drug and involves formation of nanoparticles by means of electrostatic interactions between the positively charged chitosan chains and polyanions employed as cross linkers. The most extensively used polyanion is the tripolyphosphate (TPP). As chitosan is soluble in acidic pH and reduction in particle size was required to enhance solubility and dissolution of candesartan cilexetil, nanoparticles of candesartan cilexetil were prepared by ionotropic gelation technique and evaluated for particle size , surface morphology, saturation solubility and multimedia dissolution. The technique was found to be effective for candesartan cilexetil with particle size in the range of 324 nm with a smooth surface. Percentage entrapment efficiency was in between 45-54%. Rise in solubility and dissolution as compared to pure drug was seen with little slow release in acidic and buffer media.
93-99
231
QUALITATIVE SCREENINGS OF PHYTOCHEMICAL AND GC-MS ANALYSIS OF CEROPEGIA BULBOSA- AN ENDANGERED TUBEROUS PLANT
Riddhu Palawat and Payal Lodha
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Ceropegia bulbosa is a medicinal herb, this is useful in curing many disease like kidney stone and deafness. Ethno botanical study showed that the plant has good medicinal value for tribe of Rajasthan The preliminary phytochemical studies of Ceropegia bulbosa tuber and leaf extracts revealed the presence of&nbsp; steroids, glycosides, flavonoids alkaloids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids and potassium salt. Gas chromatography mass spectroscopic investigation of methanolic extract of Ceropegia bulbosa &ndash; a annual land plant is investigated by GCMS technique while the mass spectra of the compounds found in the extract are matched with the standard library of NIST. Maximum % area are found for 2H-Azepin-2-one, 3-(dimethylamino) hexahydro is present in maximum amount (9.09.%) with RT=8.913min, followed by 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z) (8.16% )with RT=16.165min in the methanolic extract of leaves of C.bulbosa. 2H-Azepin-2-one, 3-(dimethylamino)hexahydro is present in maximum amount (43.58%) with RT=8.955min, followed by 2-Amino-9-(3,4-Dihydroxy-5-Hydroxymethyl-(16.08%) with RT=9.543min in the methanolic extract of tuber of C.bulbosa.
100-107
232
PREPARATION AND COMPARITIVE EVAULATION OF NIZATIDINE LOADED SUPER POROUS FLOATING HYDROGELS
K.B.V. Yasaswi, Sowjanya Battu, V. Umamaheswara Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of the present investigation is to formulate Nizatidine loaded superporous floating hydrogel tablets. In the present study Nizatidine floating tablets were prepared by effervescence method using sodium bicarbonate as a gas generating agent. The tablets were formulated using direct compression technology by employing polymers like chitosan, carbopol 934p and ethyl cellulose. The prepared superporous floating hydrogel tablets were evaluated for pre compression, post compression and in-vitro drug release. The in-vitro drug release pattern of Nizatidine loaded superporus floating hydrogel tablets was fitted in different kinetic models which showed highest regression for zero order kinetics with higuchi’s type of drug release mechanism. Among all the formulations, F18 which is acombination of chitosan,carbopol 934p and ethyl cellulose was optimized based on desired sustained release time (18hrs) followed by acceptable swelling and floating properties.
113-120
233
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF LISINOPRIL AND AMLODIPINE BESYLATE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM
B. Prathap, Akalanka Dey, G.H. Srinivasa Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, specific, precise, and accurate reversed-phase HPLC method was developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of lisinopril and amlodipine besylate in tablet dosage forms. The separation was achieved by Hypersil ODS-BP C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm; 5.0 µm) using methanol: phosphate buffer at pH 6 adjusted with orthophosphoric acid (30: 70, v/v) as eluent, at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Detection was carried out at wavelength 212 nm. The retention times of lisinopril and amlodipine besylate were 3.88 min and 2.716 min, respectively. The linearity was established over the concentration ranges of 20–80 µg/mL and 20–80 µg/mL with correlation coefficients (r2) 0.9999 and 0.9993 for lisinopril and amlodipine besylate respectively. The mean recoveries were found to be in the ranges of 98.33–101.37% and 98.90–100.70% for lisinopril and amlodipine besylate respectively. The proposed method has been validated as per ICH guidelines and successfully applied to the estimation of lisinopril and amlodipine besylate in their combined tablet dosage form.
121-127
234
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF METFORMIN AND PIOGLITAZONE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM
Swathi Malichetti, Sujitha Hazari and Akki Srivani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new precise, accurate, reliable validated method for the determination of Metformin and Pioglitazone has been developed by using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) in pharmaceutical dosage form. Chromatographic separation was carried out by using mobile phase 0.02M Potassium dihydrogen ortho phosphate: acetonitrile (55:45v/v, PH-5.64 adjusted with Orthophosphoric acid) on Agilent Thermo Scientific Hypersil, C18 (250 x 4.6 mm, 5m at a flow rate 1.0ml/min with UV detection at 228nm.The retention times for Metformin and Pioglitazone were 2.579 and 5.633 min respectively and both drugs showed good linearity in the range of 500-2000 µg/ml and 30-120 µg/ml. The proposed method has been successfully applied to pharmaceutical formulation and was validated according to ICH guidelines and method showed good precision with percentage relative standard deviation less than 2%. The percentage recovery for Metformin and Pioglitazone was found between 99.48-100.85% and 99.48-100.89% respectively indicating the proposed method was accurate and precise.
140-144
235
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SELECTED HERBAL EXTRACTS AGAINST MULTI DRUG RESISTANT ORAL PATHOGENS ISOLATED FROM LEPROSY PATIENTS
Divya VV and Umamaheswari S
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Many systemic diseases reflect the poor oral health of an individual. Leprosy patients are functionally dependent and present enormous oral malformation which helps the colonization of pathogens. Oral health of leprosy patients were assessed based on the prevalence of the load of oral isolates from fifty volunteer patients. Pseudomonas sp. was found to be more prevalent in all patients which expressed a higher rate of co aggregation with other isolates (Neisseria sp., Pseudomonas sp., Staphylococcus sp., Streptococcus sp., Candida albicans and C. tropicalis). All bacterial and fungal isolates were subjected to antimicrobial sensitivity test using antibiotics and antifungal drugs recommended for oral infection (Amoxicillin, Clindamycin, Erythromycin, Penicillin G, Amphotericin B and Fluconazole) and aqueous extracts of five different herbs(Berberis aristata, Cyminum cuminum, Piper nigrum, Syzygium aromaticum, and Zingiber officinale). Berberis aristata exhibited highest antifungal activity and Syzygium aromaticum exerted highest anti bacterial activity. Hence we&nbsp; recommend the use of herbs for the preparation of choorna or oral rinse which can effectively control the colonization of multi drug resistant pathogens in the oral cavity.<br />
128-132
236
EVALUATION OF DIURETIC AND ANTIUROLITHIATIC ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF BASELLA ALBA
K. Sridevi, K. Ravishankar and G.V.N Kiranmayi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was undertaken to investigate the diuretic and antiurolithiatic activities of ethanolic leaf extract of Basella alba in Albino rats. Ethanolic leaf extract was administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg (each p.o). Furosemide (5mg/kg) was used as a standard. The diuretic effect of the extract was evaluated by measuring the urine volume and determining sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate contents. Urolithiasis was induced in male rats by administering ethylene glycol (0.75%) in drinking water to groups II-V except normal control (Group I) for 28 days. Groups I, II and III served as normal control, positive control (hyperurolithiatic), and standard (cystone 750mg/kg), respectively, Groups IV and V served as curative regimen. Oxalate, calcium, phosphate were monitored in urine. Serum calcium, creatinine and uric acid were also recorded. The extract of Basella alba was safe and exhibited no gross behavioral changes in the rats. A significant diuretic effect was observed from the experimental animals treated with extract of Basella alba individually compared to the control. The results obtained suggest potential usefulness of extract of Basella alba leaf as an antiurolithiatic agent.
145-149
237
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MOUTH DISSOLVING TABLET OF TINIDAZOLE
Dwivedi Rohit, Mahajan Ritu Priya, Mahajan SC
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Tinidazole mouth dissolving tablet were prepared to achieve quick onset of action and for maximum bioavalability. The purpose of the present research work was to compare the efeect of different superdisintegrants on the mouth dissolving property of tinidazole tablets. Mouth dissolving tablet of tinidazole were prepared using crospovidone, crosscarmellose, and sodium starch glycolate as superdisintegrants by direct compression technique. Prepared tablet were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability, content uniformity, wetting time, in vitro dispersion time, in vitro disintegration time and dissolution studies. Disintegration time of all prepared formulation was found to be in order: M9
133-139
238
ENHANCEMENT OF SOLUBILITY AND DISSOLUTION RATE OF EFAVIRENZ USING LIQUI SOLID COMPACT TECHNIQUE
Jagan Mohan Vatyam, Ch. S. Vijaya Vani, V. Umamaheshwara Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of the present investigation is to formulate Liqui-Solid tablets of Efavirenz. In the present study Efavirenz immediate release tablets were prepared by using aid of non-volatile solvents like polyethylene glycol (PEG) and propylene glycol (PG), in which the poorly soluble drug is dissolved and thereby increasing its solubility and in turn dissolution rate. The tablets were formulated using direct compression technology by employing super disintegrants like cross povidone and sodium starch glycolate. The prepared liquid-solid compact tablets were evaluated for pre compression, post compression and in-vitro drug release. The in-vitro drug release pattern of liquisolid tablets of Efavirenz was fitted in kinetic model which showed highest regression i.e. for zero order kinetics. Among all the formulations, LS-12 which is a combination of Propylene glycol, Ratio (R) =2 and cross povidone- 4% was optimized based on desired immediate release time (10mins) followed by acceptable disintegration and drug release properties.
150-156
239
PRODUCTION, OPTIMIZATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL COMPOUND FROM ASPERGILLUS SP
Daljit Singh Arora, Harpreet kaur , Jemimah Gesare Onsare and Vishal Sharma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Fungi have been reported to be active producers of secondary metabolites. In this study, a fungal isolate (Aspergillus sp) isolated from soil has been evaluated for its antimicrobial activity. The activity was studied under various physio-chemical parameters, such as pH, temperature, incubation period, carbon and nitrogen sources. The best antimicrobial activity was observed in the production medium having pH 5-7, on fifth day of incubation at 25 ºC when grown as static culture. Starch was the most promising carbon source, while yeast extract and soyabean meal acted as best nitrogen sources. Butanolic extract was comparable to standard antibiotics in contrast to aqueous extract. Response surface analysis showed that the antimicrobial activity was enhanced by 1.25 folds in S.aureus, 1.28 folds (S.epidermidis), 1.6 folds (K.pneumoniae 1), 1.37 folds (C.albicans), 1.38 folds (MRSA). Characterization of the purified compound responsible for antimicrobial activity was carried out by various analytical procedures i.e. TLC, HPLC, NMR and IR. MIC of the butanolic extract ranged from (0.016mg/ml-18mg/ml) while purified compound exhibited lower MIC value of 6µg/ml, 20 µg/ml and 20 µg/ml respectively for S.epidermidis, C.albicans and MRSA. VCC (Viable cell count) studies revealed E.coli to be the most sensitive and demonstrated 100% killing at 0 hr. Butanolic extract (crude) and the purified compound were found to be neither cytotoxic nor mutagenic.
157-171
240
ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF FOSINOPRIL SODIUM, HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC
K. Priyanka, A. Ajitha, M. Sandhya Mamindla, V. Uma Maheswara Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, precise, rapid, specific and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography method was developed for simultaneous estimation of Fosinopril Sodium (FOS) and Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in pharmaceutical dosage form. Chromatographic separation was performed on X-terra(C8) (4.6mm x 150mm, 3.5m) column, with mobile phase comprising of mixture of buffer (pH 6.0, adjusted with ortho phosphoric acid), acetonitrile and methanol&nbsp; in the ratio of 80:10:10v/v, at the flow rate 0.8 ml/min. The detection was carried out at 226 nm. The retention times of FOS and HCTZ were found to be 2.1 and 3.3 mins respectively with a run time of 6 mins, theoretical levels for FOS and HCTZ were 2015 and 4034 respectively, with a resolution of 5.42. As per ICH guidelines the method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection and limit of quantitation, robustness and ruggedness. Linearity of FOS was found in the range of 10-50 &micro;g/mL and that for HCTZ was found to be 6.25-31.35 &micro;g/mL. The correlation coefficient for FOS and HCTZ were 0.9992 and 0.9991 respectively. The LOD values for FOS and HCTZ were 0.88 and 1.11 &micro;g/mL respectively. The LOQ values for FOS and HCTZ were and 2.96 and 3.7 &micro;g/mL respectively. This demonstrates that the developed method is simple, precise, rapid, selective, accurate and reproducible for simultaneous estimation of FOS and HCTZ tablet dosage form.<br />
183-188
241
PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF ETHYL CELLULOSE MICROSPHERES OF PIOGLITAZONE HCl FOR SUSTAINED DRUG DELIVERY
Vankayalu Devendiran Sundar, Nandhakumar Sathyamoorthy, Manam Madhuri, Magharla Dasaratha Dhanaraju
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of this study is to formulate and evaluate ethyl cellulose microspheres of pioglitazone hydrochloride for sustained/controlled drug release. Ethyl cellulose microspheres loaded with pioglitazone hydrochloride were prepared using emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The prepared microspheres were characterized for their average particle size, drug entrapment efficiency, scanning electron microscopy, DSC studies, in-vitro drug release behavior and in-vitro release mechanism. The microspheres were spherical with average particle size of 19 to 31 &mu;m. The microspheres were free flowing smooth and spherical in shape with ideal surface morphology. The DSC endotherm proves the compatibility of drug and polymer. In-vitro release studies reveals that the microspheres formulation prepared with an increasing concentration of polymer exhibits more control release than the formulation prepared with lower concentration. Among all the batches, formulation with higher concentration of polymer shows an extended release and is suitable for formulate as sustained/controlled delivery system.
189-193
242
SCREENING OF SKELETAL MUSCLE RELAXANT ACTIVITY OF PLANT VICIA FABA
Kalakonda Rajesh, Kadiri Sunil Kumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The study was designed to investigate the skeletal muscle relaxant activity of vicia faba (400mg/kg, p.o) by using rota rod apparatus. Experiments were carried out on albino mice and the animals were randomly allotted to the different control, test and standard (diazepam 4mg/kg, p.o) groups. The methanolic extract significantly reduced the fall off time (4.33sec) in comparision with the fall off time of control treated animals (11.6 sec). This reduction in fall off time observed in test extract animals placed on rotarod apparatus indicates motor incoordination. As it is evident from phytochemical studies that vicia faba leaf extract possess tannins and hence the observed skeletal muscle relaxant activity may be attributed to tannins.
237-240
243
REVIEW ON USE OF PLASMAPHERESIS IN FOGOSELVAGEM
Kiron S.S, Arun Shirwaikar, Yogala C.K, Saritha M
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Fogoselvagem (pemphigus foliaceus) is an endemic form of pemphigus foliaceus and was formerly known as Brazilian pemphigus foliaceus because it was originally observed in specific river valleys of rural Brazil. Plasmapheresis is a therapeutic option in patients with recalcitrant disease. It may decrease autoantibody titers in some patients and favourably influence the clinical outcome, especially in patients with otherwise therapy-resistant pemphigus foliaceus.<br />
286-288
244
FORMULATION AND COMPARITIVE OPTIMIZATION OF MULTIPLE LIPID DRUG CARRIERS OF VALSARTAN FOR ORAL CONTROLLED RELEASE
T. L. Vaishnavi, Sowjanya Battu, V. Uma Maheshwara Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In the present study, an attempt was made to formulate, comparatively evaluate and optimize multiple lipid drug carriers of valsartan for oral controlled release. Two lipid drug delivery systems i.e. Niosomes and Liposomes were studied for the delivery of the anti-hypertensive drug valsartan. They were formulated as suspensions.Ether injection and rotary evaporator method were chosen for the formulation of physically and chemically stable niosomes and liposomes of valsartan.In-vitro evaluation studies for the prepared multiple drug delivery carriers of valsartan were performed. The in-vitro evaluation studies performed were evaluation for physical appearance, particle size by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), drug content , entrapment efficiency and in-vitro drug release. Optimization of the best lipid drug delivery system and the best method of preparation was done based on the results of <em>In-Vitro</em> drug release and entrapment efficiency values. Finally, an attempt was made to improve the bioavailabilty of the administered drug, reduce side effects and improve patient compliance by optimizing the best formulation through lipid drug delivery technology.
289-297
245
COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF FILM FORMING PROPERTIES OF SOME NATURAL POLYMERS
Abhishek Rathi, Anil Pethe
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of the present work was to formulate and evaluate transdermal films using natural polymers and to check its effectiveness for control of drug release using Ibuprofen as model drug. Study was undertaken to report the film forming properties of the natural polymers and their physicochemical data. Various drug free films with varying quantities of polymers i.e. Pectin (4, 6, 8 %), Locust bean gum (1, 2, 3 %), Chitosan (0.5, 1, 2 %), Shellac (2.5, 5, 7.5 %) and plasticizer i.e. Poly ethylene glycol-400 (PEG-400) in 10, 20, 30 % were formulated using solvent casting method using mercury as a substrate. Initially, the drug free films were formulated and were evaluated for various parameters like folding endurance, uniformity of thickness, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), tensile strength, break force, % elongation. The FTIR study revealed that the drug &amp; polymers were compatible with each other. The film composition which showed significant results were selected and drug loaded films with same composition incorporating 200mg of drug and varying quantity of permeation enhancer i.e. Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) in 5, 10, 15 % were formulated and in-vitro diffusion study using Franz diffusion cell was carried out.&nbsp;
347-356
246
EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF INDIAN HERBS
Kulkarni Chitrarekha Girish, Lohar Bhagwan Namdev, Jadhav Shital Tanaji, Salunkhe Satyajeet Sunil
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Helminthic infections are major cause of chronic ill health among tropical people. Traditional medicines contain several plant products for eliminating helminthic worms. However, standardization of individual ingredients is lacking in many cases. Present investigations are undertaken to ascertain anthelmintic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Terminalia belerica fruit, Boerrhavia diffusa leaf and Saxifraga granulata root against Pheretima posthuma and Eisenia foetida. Albendazole 20mg/ml is used as a reference standard drug and normal saline as control. The result is expressed in terms of time for paralysis and time for death. The study indicated significant anthelmintic activity of aqueous as well as ethanolic extracts of Terminalia belerica and Boerrhavia diffusa. &nbsp;Ethanolic extract of Saxifraga granulata &nbsp;at concentration of 50mg/ml showed comparable anthelmintic activity with reference standard against Pheretima posthuma.
357-362
247