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Authors *Amna Mumtaz, Muhammad Nadeem, Javeid Iqbal, Samiullah Burki
Description Deafness is the disability to hear sounds usually due to malfunctioning of cochlear cells. These cells are responsible for deafness. If inner ear or auditory nerve is involved in causing deafness it is called sensory neural hearing loss. Causes of hearing loss vary in different regions of the world. Many diseases like meningitis, measles and high grade fever are responsible for deafness as well as trend of consanguineous marriages and positive family history is also thought to be responsible for deafness. As Pakistan is a developing country lack of immunization, trend of consanguineous marriages, factors associated with prenatal and postnatal care of mother play a major role in causing deafness in children, management of deafness is difficult and expensive. It includes hearing aid, cochlear implant and rehabilitation services the purpose of this study was to find the major causes of deafness in Pakistani children. For this purpose 122 children were included from deaf school located in Karachi, Pakistan. The data was gathered in the form of questioners and interviews of parents and children, and there previous audiological test reports. The provided information was analyzed and it was noted that the consanguineous marriages are responsible for deafness as well as positive family history and diseases also play role in causing deafness. In this study, it was found that  69.67% of  deaf children  have parental relationship(cousins) ,44.26% have family history of deafness .The cause of deafness was unknown in 65.57 children Ear infection was present in 7(5.73%) children .High grade fever was 3.27 %. Meningitis was 2.45 %, Measles was 1.63%, 4.9% were born premature  ,jaundice was present in 2.45% of children but due to lack of education and awareness parents were not able to provide satisfactory answers of questioners/interviews. It was concluded that trend of family marriages is common in Pakistani population, poor immunization of children, no screening at the time of birth, lack of awareness and poor socioeconomic conditions are factors which are responsible for deafness in children of Pakistan.