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Authors *Rajwar Navneet, Kothiyal Preeti
Description <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:PunctuationKerning/> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas/> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables/> <w:SnapToGridInCell/> <w:WrapTextWithPunct/> <w:UseAsianBreakRules/> <w:DontGrowAutofit/> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--> <p style="text-align: justify" class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black">The discovery of the broad neuroprotective<span>&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>potential of erythropoietin (EPO), an endogenous hematopoietic growth factor, leaded to the new therapeutic avenues in the treatment of brain diseases. EPO has direct effects on cells of the nervous system that make it a highly attractive candidate drug for neuroprotection/neuroregeneration. EPO expression in the brain is induced by hypoxia. Practically all brain cells are capable of production and release of EPO and expression of its receptor. EPO exerts multifarious protective effects on brain cells. It protects neuronal cells from noxious stimuli such as hypoxia, excess glutamate, serum deprivation or kainic acid exposure in vitro by targeting a variety of mechanisms and involves neuronal, glial and endothelial cell functions. In rodent models of ischemic stroke, EPO reduces infarct volume and improves functional outcome, but beneficial effects have also been observed in animal models of subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. EPO has a convenient therapeutic window upon ischemic stroke and favorable pharmacokinetics. EPO has been found by many investigators to be protective or regenerative and to improve cognitive performance in various rodent models of neurological and psychiatric disease.<span>&nbsp; </span>Results from first therapeutic trials in humans are promising, but will need to be validated in larger trials. This article reviews on the preclinical and clinical work on EPO for the indications neuroprotection/neuroregeneration and cognition.</span></p> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" LatentStyleCount="156"> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} </style> <![endif]-->